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- Author or Editor: Lingxiao Zhang x
Soybean (Glycine max) grown as a vegetable is gaining in popularity in the U.S. and demand is expected to increase over the long term. However, information on production in the U.S. is limited because most of the product is imported. Field experiments were conducted at Stoneville, Miss., in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the production and yield potential and to estimate the net returns for sustainable production in the Mississippi Delta. In 2004, four vegetable soybean varieties were evaluated and 23 varieties were evaluated in 2005. The varieties varied from maturity group III to VII. The late-maturing varieties were generally taller, had more nodes/plant, pods/plant, and fresh green pod yield at R6 stage (full seed) than the early-maturing varieties. Fresh green bean yield ranged from 1438 to 19,119 lb/acre in 2004. The mean bean yield for the 18 Apr. 2005 planting was 26,538 lb/acre compared with a mean of 18,131 lb/acre for the 10 May 2005 planting. Interaction occurred between planting date and variety as well as soil type and variety for all the variables evaluated. ‘Envy’ produced the lowest yield, whereas ‘Garden Soy 01’, ‘Garden Soy 21’, ‘Midori Giant’, ‘Mojo Green’, and ‘Moon Cake’ produced the highest fresh bean yield. The estimated net returns, using the Mississippi State Budget Generator as a guide, indicated more than twice the returns from growing the regular commodity soybean. The data suggest that vegetable soybean can fit well into the existing cropping system and could be a viable alternative crop for growers in the Mississippi Delta who want to capitalize on a niche market.
Response of Toyonoka strawberry to AgNO3 was studied. Types and combinations of plant growth regulators had significant effects on shoot regeneration efficiency. Explants cultured for 10 days in shoot regeneration medium in the presence of AgNO3 not only enhanced shoot regeneration efficiency but also expedited the initiation of adventitious buds. Highest regeneration (87.38%) and number of shoots per explant (11.67) were achieved in shoot regeneration media containing 1.5 mg·L–1 TDZ, 0.4 mg·L–1 IBA and 1.0 mg·L–1 AgNO3. Half-strength MS containing 1.0 mg·L–1 AgNO3 was an optimum medium for rooting. AgNO3 advanced root emergence and increased percent rooting, root length, dry weight and activity. Lower concentrations of AgNO3 inhibited ethylene production and promoted shoot regeneration and growth. It had a significant stimulatory effect on chlorophyll, soluble protein contents and antioxidant enzyme activities. Chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased in the presence of AgNO3 and reached maximum at 1.0 mg·L–1 AgNO3. Root water content, superoxide free radicals (O2 .-), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, proline accumulation and IAA-oxidase activity in leaves were increased while (IAA) content was decreased in the presence of AgNO3. Chemical names used: indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); silver nitrate (AgNO3); thidiazuron (TDZ); N6-benzyladenine (BA); 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D); indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA); gibberellic acid (GA3); bovine serum albumin (BSA); 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC).
Kaolin particle film (KPF) is an aqueous formulation of chemically inert mineral particles that can be sprayed on the surface of crops to form a protective film, resulting in increased fruit yield and quality. In this work, the effects of kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in ‘Meili’ (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes were investigated under different growth stages over two growing seasons. The 100-berry weight and titratable acid content were decreased, and the sugar and soluble solid contents were increased in grapes of plants treated with kaolin over 2 years. Compared with grapes from plants not sprayed with kaolin, the levels of total phenol, flavonoid, flavanol, tannin, and anthocyanins of grapes from plants treated with kaolin for 2 years were mostly increased. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis also revealed an increased content of monomeric anthocyanin and changed anthocyanin composition. However, there was little effect on the volatile compounds in the grapes. These results demonstrate that KPF can facilitate the accumulation of sugar and phenolics, thereby improving grape quality even in a humid climate.