To investigate the quantitative response of tomato yield and fruit quality to deficit irrigation applied at different growth stages, greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018. Three irrigation treatments (full irrigation and two-thirds or one-third of full irrigation) were applied to greenhouse-grown tomato plants at flowering and fruit development (stage 2) and at fruit maturation stage (stage 3). Grey relational analysis (GRA), the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS), and principal components analysis (PCA) were used to calculate the comprehensive fruit quality indexes, and combinatorial evaluation method was determined. The results showed that deficit irrigation significantly reduced evapotranspiration (ET) and tomato yield and that relative yield had a negative linear correlation with relative seasonal water deficit (1−ETi/ETc). However, deficit irrigation improved fruit quality, especially at stage 2. Total soluble solids, the total soluble sugar concentration, the sugar-to-acid ratio, and vitamin C in the tomatoes all increased significantly in plants that were deficit irrigated compared with fully irrigated plants, while organic acids and lycopene decreased in both years. There were linear correlations between fruit quality parameters and 1−ETi/ETc. The comprehensive quality index derived from GRA and PCA is reliable, and the comprehensive quality indexes given by GRA, PCA, and a combination of GRA and PCA showed positive linear correlation with 1−ETi/ETc. The comprehensive quality ranking showed that in both years, F2/3M1 (two-thirds full irrigation at stage 2) gave a better result and CK (full irrigation) the worst. An appropriate water deficit at the flowering and fruit development stage, which results in a trade-off between acceptable yield and improved fruit quality, is recommended. Our results provide a sound basis for tomato production that has a desirable balance between high yield and high fruit quality.
Xuelian Jiang, Yueling Zhao, Ling Tong, Rui Wang, and Sheng Zhao
Ling Li, Takashi Watanabe, Atsuko Uragami, Hiroaki Kitazawa, and Xiangyou Wang
To control asparagus harvest timing, we investigated the effects of short-term low (5%) oxygen (O2) treatment in the cultivation area on asparagus growth and yield using a closed cultivation system. During 120 days of cultivation, low O2 treatments were initiated at 0 to 4, 20 to 24, and 40 to 44 days after planting (DAP). The sprouting spears and control crown yield gradually decreased with increasing DAP. However, low O2 treatment at 0 to 4 DAP significantly delayed the decrease until 80 DAP, although the total yield did not change during cultivation. In contrast, low O2 treatments at 20 to 24 and 40 to 44 DAP did not affect yield performance. Taken together, short-term low O2 treatment immediately after planting can change the harvest timing of white asparagus and can be used for effective asparagus culturing in a closed system, such as a plant factory.
Ling Yu, Hongwei Chen, Peipei Hong, Hongli Wang, and Kefeng Liu
Salvia splendens is a widely used ornamental bedding plant; however, the limited propagation method has decreased its quality and yield. Through years of selection, we have obtained a new variety of S. splendens with weak apical dominance and named it as ‘Cailinghong’. To establish an effective method for regeneration of S. splendens ‘Cailinghong’, different explants, including leaves, receptacles, petioles, stem nodes, and stem segments were used for adventitious bud induction. Next, various combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) were selected for bud and root induction, which were assessed by adventitious bud initiation rate and proliferation rate, as well as root induction rate. Meanwhile, the survival rate of transplanted plantlets was also calculated. As a result, stem nodes were found easy to be induced to form buds, and the optimum medium component was 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.45 µM naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 8.88 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), and 2.46 µM 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) for plantlets induction, whereas 1/4 MS medium supplemented with 2.23 µM NAA for root induction. Furthermore, the survival rate of transplanted plantlets was up to 80%, and all regenerated plantlets were normal in phenotype. Therefore, cultured in 1/2 MS medium with combined PGRs, whole plantlet of S. splendens ‘Cailinghong’ could be regenerated directly from stem node.
Shao-chang Qin, Juan-ling Li, Abdul Kareem, and Yong Wang
Partridge tea is one of the famous local herbal teas of Hainan Island, China. In the present study, headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were combined to determine and analyze the volatile components in the red and green leaves of partridge tea. Seventeen volatile components were identified in the red young leaves. The olefins, alkanes, and alcohols accounted for 71.24%, 1.1%, and 0.54%, among which the main components were caryophyllene (22.50%), humulene (18.73%), and α-guaiene (8.78%), respectively. Twenty volatile components were identified from red mature leaves, including 34.74% olefins, 6.14% esters, and 3.11% acids. Eighteen volatile components were identified from green young leaves, among which olefins (70.52%), alkanes (4.32%), and alcohol (0.89%) were the major components. Nineteen volatile components were identified from green mature leaves, among which the olefins, esters, and acids were the major components with the contents of 46.04%, 6.38%, and 1.37%, respectively. Results showed that the major volatile components of partridge tea were olefins, in which caryophyllene was the most abundant. The contents of volatile components between red leaves and green leaves had notable differences, which might be useful for germplasm identification of partridge tea.
Jing-jing Zhao, Xun Chen, Li-juan Fan, and Ling Wang
Lijuan Fan, Yu Gao, Karl H. Hasenstein, and Ling Wang
Zong-zhe Wan, Ya-nan Li, Xin-yu Qi, Dan Wang, and Ling Wang
Xun Chen, Nai-xin Liu, Li-juan Fan, Yu Du, and Ling Wang
Xin-yu Qi, Li-juan Fan, Yu Gao, Yuhan Shang, Hong-yan Liu, and Ling Wang
Xinhua Zhang, Fujun Li, Nana Ji, Shujun Shao, Dongyang Wang, Ling Li, and Fansheng Cheng
The physiological role of arginase in nitrogen remobilization processes from protein degradation during seed germination has well been described in several species. However, very little is known about its possible roles in plant stress responses. Treatment of tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) with 0.05 mm methyl jasmonate (MeJA) enhanced transcription levels of arginase genes, especially LeARG2. Chilling injury (CI) of fruit treated with 0.05 mm MeJA for 12 hours was also effectively alleviated, as manifested by decreases in CI index, electrolyte leakage, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. To investigate the potential role of arginase in MeJA-induced chilling tolerance, fruit were treated with MeJA or the arginase inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) combined with MeJA and then stored at 2 °C for 28 days. MeJA-induced arginase activity was strongly inhibited and the reduction of CI by MeJA was nearly abolished by the inhibitor. In addition, MeJA treatment increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); inhibited peroxidase (POD) activities; and promoted proline and polyamines accumulation. These effects were partially counteracted by nor-NOHA; putrescine accumulation, however, was unaffected by the inhibitor. Our results indicate that arginase may be involved in MeJA-induced chilling tolerance, possibly by ameliorating the antioxidant enzyme system of fruit and increasing proline levels.