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Shao-chang Qin, Juan-ling Li, Abdul Kareem, and Yong Wang

Partridge tea is one of the famous local herbal teas of Hainan Island, China. In the present study, headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were combined to determine and analyze the volatile components in the red and green leaves of partridge tea. Seventeen volatile components were identified in the red young leaves. The olefins, alkanes, and alcohols accounted for 71.24%, 1.1%, and 0.54%, among which the main components were caryophyllene (22.50%), humulene (18.73%), and α-guaiene (8.78%), respectively. Twenty volatile components were identified from red mature leaves, including 34.74% olefins, 6.14% esters, and 3.11% acids. Eighteen volatile components were identified from green young leaves, among which olefins (70.52%), alkanes (4.32%), and alcohol (0.89%) were the major components. Nineteen volatile components were identified from green mature leaves, among which the olefins, esters, and acids were the major components with the contents of 46.04%, 6.38%, and 1.37%, respectively. Results showed that the major volatile components of partridge tea were olefins, in which caryophyllene was the most abundant. The contents of volatile components between red leaves and green leaves had notable differences, which might be useful for germplasm identification of partridge tea.

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Jing-jing Zhao, Xun Chen, Li-juan Fan, and Ling Wang

Iris sanguinea is an herb perennial in Iridaceae, with both ornamental and medicinal value (Qi and Yang, 1988). It is mainly distributed in Heilongjiang, southern Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, and Inner Mongolia, China; and surrounding countries, including Japan, Korea, Mongolia, and Russia (Zhao et al., 2000). It has specific characteristics including fast growth, extensive management, and simple cultivation and maintenance, and therefore, has a broad prospect of application in landscaping (Dong et al., 2014; Shang and Wang, 2014). Wild resources of I. sanguinea are abundant, but the color is mainly

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Juan Yang, Fengyi Li, Sheng Zhou, Lijuan Fan, and Ling Wang

Iris sanguinea, a perennial, cold-tolerant, herbaceous flower, is widely distributed in northeast China. It is a valuable ornamental landscaping plant because of its rich and unusual flower colors and patterns (Lian et al., 2016). With the increasing demands of the market, I. sanguinea is becoming a new and distinctive landscaping and cut flower. Using conventional breeding methods, we have successively bred and released 14 new cultivars of I. sanguinea. These include cultivars with new flower colors, such as Beautiful Lotus (Wang et al., 2016), Chun Xin (Wang et al., 2018

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Xuelian Jiang, Yueling Zhao, Ling Tong, Rui Wang, and Sheng Zhao

To investigate the quantitative response of tomato yield and fruit quality to deficit irrigation applied at different growth stages, greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018. Three irrigation treatments (full irrigation and two-thirds or one-third of full irrigation) were applied to greenhouse-grown tomato plants at flowering and fruit development (stage 2) and at fruit maturation stage (stage 3). Grey relational analysis (GRA), the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS), and principal components analysis (PCA) were used to calculate the comprehensive fruit quality indexes, and combinatorial evaluation method was determined. The results showed that deficit irrigation significantly reduced evapotranspiration (ET) and tomato yield and that relative yield had a negative linear correlation with relative seasonal water deficit (1−ETi/ETc). However, deficit irrigation improved fruit quality, especially at stage 2. Total soluble solids, the total soluble sugar concentration, the sugar-to-acid ratio, and vitamin C in the tomatoes all increased significantly in plants that were deficit irrigated compared with fully irrigated plants, while organic acids and lycopene decreased in both years. There were linear correlations between fruit quality parameters and 1−ETi/ETc. The comprehensive quality index derived from GRA and PCA is reliable, and the comprehensive quality indexes given by GRA, PCA, and a combination of GRA and PCA showed positive linear correlation with 1−ETi/ETc. The comprehensive quality ranking showed that in both years, F2/3M1 (two-thirds full irrigation at stage 2) gave a better result and CK (full irrigation) the worst. An appropriate water deficit at the flowering and fruit development stage, which results in a trade-off between acceptable yield and improved fruit quality, is recommended. Our results provide a sound basis for tomato production that has a desirable balance between high yield and high fruit quality.

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Ling Yu, Hongwei Chen, Peipei Hong, Hongli Wang, and Kefeng Liu

Salvia splendens is a widely used ornamental bedding plant; however, the limited propagation method has decreased its quality and yield. Through years of selection, we have obtained a new variety of S. splendens with weak apical dominance and named it as ‘Cailinghong’. To establish an effective method for regeneration of S. splendens ‘Cailinghong’, different explants, including leaves, receptacles, petioles, stem nodes, and stem segments were used for adventitious bud induction. Next, various combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) were selected for bud and root induction, which were assessed by adventitious bud initiation rate and proliferation rate, as well as root induction rate. Meanwhile, the survival rate of transplanted plantlets was also calculated. As a result, stem nodes were found easy to be induced to form buds, and the optimum medium component was 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.45 µM naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 8.88 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), and 2.46 µM 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) for plantlets induction, whereas 1/4 MS medium supplemented with 2.23 µM NAA for root induction. Furthermore, the survival rate of transplanted plantlets was up to 80%, and all regenerated plantlets were normal in phenotype. Therefore, cultured in 1/2 MS medium with combined PGRs, whole plantlet of S. splendens ‘Cailinghong’ could be regenerated directly from stem node.

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Ling Li, Takashi Watanabe, Atsuko Uragami, Hiroaki Kitazawa, and Xiangyou Wang

To control asparagus harvest timing, we investigated the effects of short-term low (5%) oxygen (O2) treatment in the cultivation area on asparagus growth and yield using a closed cultivation system. During 120 days of cultivation, low O2 treatments were initiated at 0 to 4, 20 to 24, and 40 to 44 days after planting (DAP). The sprouting spears and control crown yield gradually decreased with increasing DAP. However, low O2 treatment at 0 to 4 DAP significantly delayed the decrease until 80 DAP, although the total yield did not change during cultivation. In contrast, low O2 treatments at 20 to 24 and 40 to 44 DAP did not affect yield performance. Taken together, short-term low O2 treatment immediately after planting can change the harvest timing of white asparagus and can be used for effective asparagus culturing in a closed system, such as a plant factory.

Open access

Lijuan Fan, Yu Gao, Karl H. Hasenstein, and Ling Wang

The Iridaceae is a family of perennial, herbaceous, and bulbous plants that belong to the order Asparagales, taking their name from the genus Iris. There are more than 2000 species in this family (Peter and Manning, 2008). The genus Iris is the largest one of the family Iridaceae. There are about 300 species around the world and 60 species in China (Roguz et al., 2020). Irises are commonly used in landscaping because of their large, colorful, and showy flowers (Lian et al., 2016). Among Iris species, Iris

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Dan Wang, Yang Yang, Fengyi Li, Sheng Zhou, Guiling Liu, Juan Yang, Wangbin Ye, and Ling Wang

Rhododendron dauricum is an extremely cold hardy, semievergreen, multibranched shrub that is distributed widely throughout northeastern China, Mongolia, Japan, the Korean Peninsula, and Russia (Yang et al., 2020). It grows in a wide range of environmental conditions, from forests to rocky landscapes; produces flower buds during severe winters; and blooms in early spring even if it is covered in snow (Polezhaeva et al., 2018). It is a valuable ornamental landscape species in the Great Khingan Mountains of northeastern China, where the annual average temperature is –22.27 to 9.67 °C (Zhang et al., 2018). It

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Zong-zhe Wan, Ya-nan Li, Xin-yu Qi, Dan Wang, and Ling Wang

The genus Iris belongs to the Iridaceae family, which is well known throughout the world for its diverse color and unique flower shape. In China, Iris sanguinea, one species of Iris, is a typical cold-region ornamental species. It is a perennial herb with a wide distribution in the Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and Jilin provinces of northeast China (Zhao et al., 2000). It is a valuable ornamental landscape plant because of its large, showy flower with a distinctive flower pattern. It is also drought tolerant and resistant to pollution. It exhibits rapid

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Xun Chen, Nai-xin Liu, Li-juan Fan, Yu Du, and Ling Wang

Iris sanguinea is a perennial flowering ornamental landscape plant (Shang and Wang, 2014; Wang et al., 2013). Natural hybridization occurs among cultivars, and the original wild species exists and makes abundant flower colors available in natural population. The flowers of I. sanguinea are mainly violet (RHS N88A), whereas I. sanguinea f. albiflora is white (RHS N155C). In recent years, some new flower colors and shapes of cultivars, such as ‘Zi Die’ (Dong et al., 2014), ‘Beautiful Lotus’ (Wang et al., 2016), ‘Bandie’ (Wang and