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  • Author or Editor: Lili Guo x
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Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of auxin-mediated proteins that have key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To the best of our knowledge, no genome-wide identification of the ARF gene family in Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac) has been conducted to date. During this study, 24 ARF genes were identified in the Arabian jasmine genome. A phylogenetic analysis suggested that the 24 Arabian jasmine ARFs (JsARFs) were clustered into seven groups and distributed on 11 of the 13 Arabian jasmine chromosomes. The promoter regions of these ARFs were rich in cis-responsive elements related to hormone responses, light responses, and biotic and abiotic stresses. A collinearity analysis showed that certain genes arose by duplication, such as JsARF6 and JsARF19 and JsARF7 and JsARF24. A subsequent analysis of expression profiles based on RNA sequencing data showed that most genes had differential expression patterns among different tissues. The expression levels of 11 genes under indole-3-acetic acid hormone treatment were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the results demonstrated that the expression levels of nine JsARF genes were downregulated. Our findings provide valuable information to create the foundation for further functional investigations of the roles of ARF genes in Arabian jasmine growth and development.

Open Access

Paeonia ostii T. Hong & J. X. Zhang is a perennial oil and medicinal plant with great importance as well as landscaping. P. ostii is being extensively planted in China, but the soil fertility limits the yield and quality. There is little information available on the effects of phosphorus fertilization on productivity, physiological characteristics, and seed yield and quality. This study investigated the influence of different phosphorus levels, 0 kg·hm−2 (CK), 90 c−2 (P1), 135 kg·hm−2 (P2), 180 kg·hm−2 (P3), 225 kg·hm−2 (P4), and 270 kg·hm−2 (P5), on the photosynthesis, morphology, physiological parameters, and yield of P. ostii. The results indicated that the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance (g S), and transpiration rate of P. ostii increased significantly with the application of P4, which increased by 34.77%, 65.72%, and 21.00% compared with CK, respectively. Simultaneously, the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and photosynthetic pigment in P4 were the highest compared with other treatments. In addition, thousand-grain weight (326.4 g) and seed yield per plant (37.33 g) of P4 were significantly higher than the control. However, the total amount of unsaturated fatty acids in P4 was lower compared with other treatments. The indexes of high correlation coefficients with Dim 1 and Dim 2 were g S and superoxide dismutase (SOD), respectively. The results showed that phosphorus levels improved plant photosynthetic capacity and increased antioxidant capacity as well as seed yield. Furthermore, phosphate fertilizer had significant effects on the oil composition. Moreover, the effect of phosphorus application rate on the growth index of P. ostii was greater than that of the physiological index.

Open Access

The relationship between spatial and temporal dynamics of major salt ions and their toxicology is still unclear, particularly in perennial orchard fields. A seasonal soil sampling was conducted from Apr. to Oct. 2011 in a salinized orchard soil in semiarid northwest China. Soil moisture content and concentrations of total soluble salt and eight salt ions were measured every 2 weeks in the soil at 0 to 2, 2 to 5, 5 to 10, 10 to 15, 15 to 20, 20 to 25, 25 to 40, 40 to 60, 60 to 80, and 80 to 120 cm during the growing period of apple trees. Soil moisture content decreased early in the growth season (Period 1) but with increasing rainfall in the middle of growing season (Period 2 and Period 3) and reached a maximum at late season (Period 4) at all depths. Soil salt concentration increased along with soil profile, particularly in the 60- to 120-cm soil layer at all periods. The highest soil salt level was observed in Period 4. The contents of HCO3 , Ca2+, and Mg2+ were almost uniform in all soil layers, but the contents of Cl, SO4 2–, and Na+ increased with soil layer. The content of K+ decreased from the upper to the deeper layers of soil profile. The distribution of CO3 2– had a high temporal and spatial heterogeneity with soil depths and season. Analysis of the charge balance on positive and negative salt ions indicated that the horizontal movement of ions and the transfer of soil water were likely the driving factors affecting soil salinization. The movement of Na+ and Mg2+ ions in the top soil may be responsible for rhizospheric ions composition and toxin effect to restrain apple tree growth in the early growth period.

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