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  • Author or Editor: Liang-Sheng Wang x
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From a field experiment, the changes in morphophysiological characters and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied in two Lycoris species (Lycoris radiata and Lycoris aurea) subjected to 16 days of water deficit stress. With the increase of water deficit stress processing time, leaf relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI), net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (g S), transpiration rate (E), and chlorophyll (Chl) content decreased in both studied species. The water use efficiency (WUE) showed an opposite tendency between the two species under water deficit stress, where WUE of L. aurea decreased moderately and WUE of L. aurea increased somehow. Intercellular CO2 concentration (C i) in L. aurea and L. radiata decreased in respond to water deficit stress at early stages of stress treatment, then increased throughout the rest of the stress period, and reached levels higher than those in well-watered plants at the end of the treatment. In addition, there was a significant increment in soluble sugar content and proline accumulation under water deficit stress in both species, and L. radiata showed a much more accumulation. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased in both plants subjected to water deficit stress while declined as the stress time increased. In L. aurea, catalase (CAT) showed a sustained increment, but it responded later and after a transient increase declined again in L. radiata under water deficit stress. In conclusion, L. radiata was more tolerant to water deficit stress than L. aurea as evidenced by its relatively higher water status, higher levels of proline, soluble sugar and pigments, and stronger photoprotection. Moreover, relatively higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lower levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in L. radiata were also associated with its better protection against water deficit stress-induced oxidative damage.

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Petal anthocyanins were systematically identified and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with diode array detection among nine wild herbaceous peony (Paeonia L.) species (15 accessions). Individual anthocyanins were identified according to the HPLC retention time, elution order, MS fragmentation patterns, and by comparison with authentic standards and published data. Six main anthocyanins, including peonidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside-5-O-arabinoside (Pn3G5Ara), peonidin-3-O-glucoside, pelargonidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3G), were detected. In addition to the well-known major anthocyanins, some minor anthocyanins were identified in herbaceous peony species for the first time. Detection of the unique anthocyanins cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-5-O-galactoside and pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside-5-O-galactoside in both Paeonia anomala L. and P. anomala ssp. veitchii (Lynch) D.Y. Hong & K.Y. Pan indicated these two species should belong to the same taxon. Pn3G5Ara was found only in European wild species and subspecies suggesting different metabolic pathways between European and Chinese accessions. Anthocyanins conjugated with galactose and arabinose were observed in the genus Paeonia for the first time. The North American species, Paeonia tenuifolia L., had high Cy3G content in flower petals. This anthocyanin composition is distinct from the anthocyanin composition in Asian and European species and possibly is responsible for the vivid red coloration in flowers.

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