The inheritance of five allozymes was studied in anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) by analyzing the progeny of controlled crosses. The loci studied [Cat-1, Got-2, Pgm-2, Tpi-1, and Tpi-2] were scored by using starch gel electrophoresis. Segregation analyses of families polymorphic at each of these loci support the following hypotheses: Cat-1 is controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles; Got-2 is controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles coding for dimeric protein products; Pgm-2 is controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles coding for monomeric proteins; and Tpi-1 and Tpi-2 are each controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles coding dimeric protein products. Distorted segregation ratios were observed in some families segregating for Got-2 and Pgm-2. No linkages were detected among any of the cosegregating loci.
Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Mark P. Widrlechner and Lester A. Wilson
Alexander G. Litvin, Christopher J. Currey and Lester A. Wilson
Broad-spectrum high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps are the standard for greenhouse supplemental lighting. However, narrow-spectra light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer potential benefits for enhancing growth, photosynthesis (P n), and secondary metabolites in culinary herbs. Our objective was to quantify the effect of supplemental light source and spectra on growth, gas exchange, aroma, and flavor of culinary herbs. Basil (Ocimum basilicum ‘Nufar’), dill (Anethum graveolens ‘Fernleaf’), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum ‘Giant of Italy’) were transplanted into hydroponic systems in a glass-glazed greenhouse. Plants were provided with a supplemental photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) density of 100 μmol·m−2·s–1 from an HPS lamp or LEDs with a low blue (B) to red (R) light ratio of 7:93 [low blue (LB)] or high B:R at 30:70 [high blue (HB)]. Compared with plants grown under HPS lamps, basil grown under LB and HB LED lighting was shorter, while only HB-grown parsley was shorter; height of dill was unaffected by light source. Basil and parsley shoot fresh weight was lower for HB-treated plants compared with HPS, though dill was unaffected by supplemental light source. Shoot dry mass of basil, dill, and parsley was unaffected by light source. Both LED treatments increased P n for basil and parsley compared with HPS-grown plants. Stomatal conductance (g S) was higher under LB and HB for basil compared with HPS in the morning and evening, but only HB-treated parsley was higher than HPS lighting in morning. Basil grown under LB, and parsley under both LEDs had lower chlorophyll fluorescence than those under HPS by the evening, but all three species had more chlorophyll b under LB light than HPS. Essential oil and phenolic accumulation were influenced by supplemental light treatment and responses varied among species. Lighting from LEDs resulted in a 2-fold increase in orientin and myristicin for basil and dill, respectively, while HB increased dillapiole concentration by 89% compared with HPS-grown dill. Notably, quercetin concentration was 2.8 times higher in dill grown under HB compared with HPS. Myrcene increased in all three species under either one (basil HB; dill LB) or both (parsley) LED lights compared with HPS. The increased content of aromatic and flavor compounds demonstrates the potential of supplemental lighting systems using specific wavelengths to add value; but the use of supplemental lighting requires an understanding of the additional stress on the photosynthetic mechanisms and the subsequent effect on biomass accumulation.