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- Author or Editor: Leonard Perry x
Mean yields (stems per plant) of 5 randomly selected plants from a block of 15 were determined for each of 13 species of 2–year old herbaceous perennials. Mean yields of Achillea filipendulin a `Coronation Gold' of 4 randomly selected plants, in each of 4 replicates in a randomized c-o-replete block design, were determined over 3 years for 3 spacings. The most consistent yields over the period, and highest in years 1 and 3, were from 60cm spacing between plant centers, with yields from 90cm and 30cm highly variable. In year 2, stems were graded by length with most stems 40 to 49cm at 30cm and 90cm spacings (19 and 46 stems) and 50 to 50cm at 60cm (27 stems). As stems per plant increased from 30 to 72 for 30cm to 90cm spacing, respectively, stems per 30cm2 decreased from 30 to 8. Vaselife was greatest (9 days) for stems in Oasis preservative, with less in Floralife (8 days), tap water (7 days), or distilled water (5 days). Flowers 10 days older prior to cutting lasted an average 2 days less.
Many have been involved with broadcast television, and others will be, and most have been involved with video production either at home or work. As a powerful educational and motivational tool for teaching, research and extension, it deserves more and improved use.
Opportunities will be discussed for broadcast television, with a short video presentation of examples, including regular shows, periodic features or interviews, “live” call-ins, or tips using video or slides. Video production will be covered in more depth including general tips, technical aspects such as formats and equipment, and artistic aspects which make the difference between just filming and producing a quality production. Covered will be basics of lighting, audio, camera use, and editing--the real key to a professional quality production.
In the wild, Trillium seeds are reported to take 2 years to germinate, producing the radicle the first year and the cotyledon the second year. The accepted treatment has been to stratify the seeds using a temperature sequence of 3 months cold–3 months warm–3 months cold–3 months warm. It also has been reported that Trillium seeds treated with GA3 will germinate with no temperature treatment. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects and optimum concentration of GA3 on the seed of Trillium grandiflorum. Seeds were soaked for 12 h in concentrations of GA3 K-salts at 500, 1000, 2000, or 4000 ppm dissolved in distilled water with five replicate petri dishes of 20 seeds each (100 seeds per treatment) in a randomized complete-block design in a growth chamber (zero light). Results were analyzed using ANOVA.
Even though herbaceous perennials have been field produced for many years, there is no general nutrient recommendation for specific fertility level as related to soil type. A survey of Vermont perennial growers indicated that a variety of fertilization methods are in use (Perry and Sanders, 1983). Commercial recommendations vary: 7.8 g N/m2 from 8N–3.5P–6.7K once annually (Sinnes, 1979); 12.2 g N/m2 from 5N–4.4P–4.2K for established plants (Sinnes, 1981; Wyman, 1977); 34.2 g N/m2 from Osmocote 14N–6.2P–11.6K for plants sensitive to fertilizer, 68.5 g N/m2 for nursery stock, and 136.8 g N/m2 for greenhouse crops (Sierra, 1980).
Our future horticulture students are growing up in an electronic world, and are gaining knowledge increasingly from computers, videotapes and television, and decreasingly from books and other written media. We need to understand their interests and motivations in order to determine how to market our educational programs to them. This study profiles our future students on several career-oriented factors, including their plans after high school, their academic interests, their impressions of and experiences in agriculture and horticulture, and the sources of information they look to when seeking assistance in choosing a career track. Results compare male vs. female students, urban vs. rural students, regional differences, and differences between fifth and tenth graders (critical ages in career decision-making).
Crown divisions of Campanula takesimana were potted 1 Sept. 1994 and were grown under natural conditions until 19 Nov., when they were moved into a 3 °C greenhouse. On 15 Feb. 1995, 10 plants were randomly assigned to each of four temperature treatments (−5, −8, −11, and −14 °C), using each of four freeze acclimation procedures designated A through D: group A plants were held at treatment temperatures for 30 minutes; group B plants were first subjected to three alternating freeze-thaw cycles (−3 °C for 24 hours, 3 °C for 24 hours), then held at treatment temperatures for 30 min; plants in group C were held at −1 °C for 14 days and subsequently were exposed to treatment temperatures for 30 minutes; group D plants were held at treatment temperatures for 48 hours. A control group was held at 3 °C for the duration of the study. Following 6 weeks regrowth at 15 °C, plants were rated for survival and regrowth quality relative to unfrozen controls. At treatment temperatures of −8 °C and less, acclimation procedure significantly influenced survival and regrowth quality. Plants exposed to three freeze-thaw cycles had the highest regrowth ratings at treatment temperatures less than −5 °C, with no loss in marketability following exposure to −11 °C. In addition, all plants exposed to freeze-thaw cycles thrived following controlled freezing, whereas those in each of the other groups displayed a decline in survival with decreasing treatment temperatures. Holding plants for 14 d at −1 °C had no beneficial effect on survival or regrowth quality relative to plants held at constant above-freezing temperatures. Increasing exposure duration from 30 minutes to 48 hours significantly reduced regrowth quality at treatment temperatures of −8 °C and −11 °C.
Fifteen perennials were subjected to four to six (depending on species) levels of controlled freezing in chest freezers to determine killing temperatures. Average potting medium temperatures in six 1-liter pots of each species per freezing treatment were allowed to drop to target temperatures before plants were removed from freezers. Plants were held at 5 ± 2C for 3 months before freezing and for 24 hours after freezing before placing at 1 ± 2C. Two weeks after freezing, plant regrowth was rated on a scale of 1 to 5, 1 being dead, 3 being salable, 5 being normal (as controls of no freezing). Temperatures at which plants dropped below a 3 rating—not reliably hardy at that temperature—were –2C for Aster lateriflorus horizontalis and Tricyrtis formosana `Amethystina'; –6C for Caryopteris ×clandonensis `Longwood Blue', Phlox paniculata `David', Tiarella cordifolia collina `Oakleaf', Tricyrtis hirta `Miyazaki', and Veronica `Sunny Border Blue'; -9C for Astilbe `White Gloria', Hemerocallis `Joan Senior', Leucanthemum ×superburn `Alaska', and Tiarella c.c. `Dunvegan' and <13C for Monarda `Marshall's Delight', Phlox paniculata `White Admiral', Tiarella c. c. `Laird of Skye', and Achillea `Coronation Gold'.
Over the past 7 years, eight plants have been introduced from the Mt. Cuba Center for the Study of Piedmont Flora—two woody and six herbaceous ornamentals—which will be illustrated and described. Cornus sericea `Silver and Gold', 1988, is a sport of and similar to `Flaviramea' with white variegated leaves. Aster novae-angliae `Purple Dome', 1989, is a widely known and compact form (50 cm tall) of the species. Heuchera americana `Garnet', 1989, has shiny green foliage of the species mottled garnet-red. Solidago sphacelata `Golden Fleece', 1989, is a compact (50 cm) form of the species with semi-evergreen basal foliage, winning the ISU outstanding plant award in Switzerland in 1994. Leucothoe axillaris `Greensprite', 1991, is easy to propagate and quick to grow, with solid green, narrow leaves with undulating edges and attenuated tips. Pachysandra procumbens `Forest Green', 1992, has larger leaf whorls and a more smoothly undulating surface than the species. Trillium grandiflorum `Quicksilver', 1992, is similar to the species only with 1-year doubling time. Aster laevis `Bluebird', 1995, is similar to the species but has so far been free from foliage diseases.
In this experiment, the effects of salinity from 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 5.0 % NaCl on Hibiscus syriacus L. and Hibiscus hamabo Sieb. & Zucc. seed germination with various temperature and Ca treatments was investigated in petri dishes with 10 ml of distilled water or with the appropriate saline solution. At 11 days after treatment, the highest germination rate was obtained at 20C with H. syriacus and 25C with H. hamabo without NaCl and Ca treatments. At 25C, only H. hamabo seeds germinated with 1% NaCl, with dry and fresh weight increasing as Ca concentration increased. With 0.5% NaCl treatment, the germination rate of H. hamabo and H. syriacus increased as Ca concentrations (0.0, 13.35, and 133.5 mM) increased. Without NaCl treatments, hypocotyl and leaf length and width of H. syriacus were longer than those of H. hamabo; with NaCl treatments, the inverse was true.