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Lawrence A. Risse and Anton J. Bongers

Size 56 grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) were sampled biweekly from importers Rotterdam, the Netherlands from October 1992 through September 1993. For each sample, fruit size, weight, diameter, peel thickness, internal color, juice volume, total soluble solids (TSS), and total acid (TA) were measured for three cultivars `Marsh White', `Ruby Red' and `Star Ruby' from 12 countries of origin. Florida fruit followed by Cuban fruit weighed more, had the thinnest peel, the most juice, the lowest TA, and the highest TSS/TA ratio for all three cultivars compared to most other origins. Spanish `Ruby Red' and `Star Ruby' fruit weighed the least and had the least amount of juice compared to other origins. Turkish fruit had the highest TA and the lowest TSS/TA ratio for all three cultivars. Israelian `Marsh White' and `Star Ruby' had the highest TSS.

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Anton J. Bongers, Lawrence A. Risse and Vincent G. Bus

Comparisons were made of the major physical and chemical characteristics of seven cultivars of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) produced and imported into Western Europe from 13 origins. During the 1990-91 marketing season, `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Granny Smith', `Elstar', `Jonagold', `Gala', and `Fuji' apples were included in the study. Physical characteristics evaluated were length-to-diameter ratio, shape, external defects, internal defects, water core, bruises, firmness, blush surface, and color. Chemical characteristics evaluated were starch, juice content, soluble solids, acids, and ascorbic acid. Significant differences in some of these quality characteristics were found between the different origins. Apples produced in the United States, particularly `Delicious', had some superior quality characteristics compared to fruit from other origins.

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Roy E. McDonald, Lawrence A. Risse and Charles R. Barmore

Chopped `Salinas' crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was packaged in four types of polymeric films and stored at 1 or 5C for 14 days. Discoloration and off-flavors developed in lettuce stored in the two films in which the naturally produced CO2 rose above 20%. In the two films (oriented low-density polyethylene) with O2 transmission rates higher than 3000 ml·m-2· day-1·atm-1 at 22C, CO2 remained below 20%, O2 was between ≈ 2% and 15%, and the lettuce was acceptable after 14 days of storage at either 1 or 5C. Appearance and flavor were affected more by temperature than by length of storage.