The objectives of this research were to rank the relative shade tolerance of some new st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) cultivars and to determine what levels of shade the various cultivars can tolerate. Two consecutive studies were conducted in a glasshouse at the University of Florida Turfgrass Research Envirotron. Cultivars tested were `Bitter Blue', `Floratam', `Palmetto', `Seville', and `1997-6'. Grasses were grown in full sun or under shade structures that provided 30%, 50%, or 70% shade. In trial 1, `Seville' and `1997-6' generally provided best performance under increasing shade, with worst responses seen in `Floratam'. `Seville' and `1997-6' were predicted to maintain an acceptable quality rating of 6 at all shade levels. In trial 2, `Floratam' again had lowest visual quality scores. At 30% shade, `Seville', `Palmetto', and `Bitter Blue' ranked in the highest category, while only `Seville' and `Bitter Blue' had highest rankings at 50% shade. Reduced density was a major factor in turf decline as shade increased. Most of the cultivars performed best under some degree of shade. With the exception of `Floratam', acceptable visual scores were maintained at shade levels exceeding 60% in trial 1 and up to 61% in trial 2.
Laurie E. Trenholm and Russell T. Nagata
Laurie E. Trenholm and Jerry B. Sartain
Best management practices (BMPs) for Florida's green industries have been established since 2002. BMPs for nonagricultural industries such as commercial lawn care were developed in 2002 by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS), and other parties. The BMP educational program, delivered primarily by UF/IFAS extension in partnership with the FDEP, began in 2003 as a voluntary program. As a result of increasing concerns regarding lawn fertilization and potential harmful effects on ground and surface waters, several local governments throughout the state require commercial fertilizer applicators to have a certificate of completion in a BMP educational program. The BMP program emphasizes appropriate fertilization practices to reduce nonpoint source pollution, including proper rates, timings, and application of fertilizers. Research done on fate of fertilizer applied to turfgrass demonstrates that a properly maintained lawn provides an effective means for uptake of nutrients. Some of the factors that have been shown through research to increase the opportunity for nutrient leaching include nitrogen (N) application at higher than recommended rates, excess rainfall after fertilization, and fertilization at a time when turf is not actively growing. Research results vary regarding N source and the difference in nitrate leaching resulting from N source. To provide concise research-based information for lawmakers and elected officials in Florida, there is currently a large research project underway to further quantify nutrient leaching under a variety of circumstances. Results of this research should form the basis for future regulations regarding fertilizer applications.
Laurie E. Trenholm, Lawrence E. Datnoff and Russell T. Nagata
The objectives of these studies were to evaluate the effects of silicon on drought and shade tolerance of st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum). Studies were conducted during 2001 in a glasshouse at the University of Florida Turfgrass Research Envirotron in Gainesville. For both drought and shade evaluations, calcium silicate slag (CaSiO3) was pre-incorporated into pots with commercial potting soil at the rate of 3.36 kg·ha-1 (0.069 lb/1000 ft2). `FX-10' and `FHSA-115' st. augustinegrass were planted into 15.2-cm-diameter × 30.5-cm-deep (6 × 12 inches) plastic pots for the drought study and subjected to minimal irrigation. Under severe drought stress, silicon-amended plants had better responses than non-amended plants. Little improvement was seen under moderate drought stress. `Floratam' and genotype 1997-6 were placed under full sunlight or 50% to 70% shade. There was no benefit from use of silicon under shaded conditions. These findings suggest that silicon might provide improved tolerance to st. augustinegrass under severe drought stress.
Subhrajit K. Saha, Laurie E. Trenholm and J. Bryan Unruh
As a result of the coexistence of turfgrass and ornamentals in traditional landscapes, it is often impractical to separate fertilization and irrigation management among species. Furthermore, limited information is available on effects of turfgrass fertilizer on ornamental plants and vice versa. This research studied effects of two quick-release fertilizers (QRF) and one slow-release fertilizer (SRF) on quality and growth of turfgrass and ornamental plants and nutrient leaching. ‘Floratam’ St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum Walt. Kuntze) was compared with a mix of common Florida ornamentals, including canna (Canna generalis L.H. Bailey), nandina (Nandina domestica Thunb.), ligustrum (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.), and allamanda (Allamanda cathartica L.). All plants were grown in 300-L plastic pots in Arredondo fine sand. Less nitrate (NO3 −) was leached from turfgrass than from ornamentals and more NO3 − leached from QRF 16N–1.7P–6.6K than from SRF 8N–1.7P–9.9K. Quick-release fertilizers produced higher plant quality. This controlled environment research provides preliminary data on which in situ research may be modeled. Further research is required to verify how nutrient release rate affects turfgrass and ornamental quality and nitrate leaching in an urban landscape.
Subhrajit K. Saha, Laurie E. Trenholm and J. Bryan Unruh
Due to increasing consumption of water in landscapes and concern over conservation of water resources, this study was conducted to determine the effect of fertilizer source on water consumption of turf and ornamentals and to compare total water use (WU) of st. augustinegrass and ornamentals. The experiment was performed in a climate-controlled greenhouse at the G.C. Horn Turfgrass Field Laboratory at the University of Florida in Gainesville. `Floratam' st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum Walt. Kuntze) was compared to a mix of common Florida ornamentals including canna (Canna generalis L.H. Bailey), nandina (Nandina domestica Thunb.), ligustrum (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.), and allamanda (Allamanda cathartica L.). All plants were grown in 300-L plastic pots in Arredondo fine sand. There were three fertilizer treatments [quick-release fertilizers (QRF) 16–4–8 and 15–0–15, and slow-release fertilizer (SRF) 8–4–12] applied at 4.9 g N/m2 every 60 days. Water was applied as needed to maintain turgor and turfgrass pots were mowed weekly. Experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Visual quality ratings and time domain reflectometry (TDR) data were collected weekly. Both turf and ornamentals consumed less water and had higher water use efficiency (WUE) when treated with SRF. Ornamentals consumed from 11% to 83% more water than turf, depending on season. These results may have implications in future research on irrigation management to verify WUE between turf and ornamentals in an urban landscape.
Laurie E. Trenholm, Darin W. Lickfeldt and William T. Crow
This research was conducted to determine if application of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) could reduce turfgrass water requirements in soil infested with sting nematodes (Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau). The effects of 1,3-D and fenamiphos were evaluated on quality and persistence of `Tifway 419' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) subjected to drought or deficit irrigation. The research consisted of two greenhouse studies in 2002 and 2003 where irrigation was either withheld or applied in deficit quantities, and one field study in 2003 where irrigation was withheld. In general, 1,3-D-treated turf maintained up to 40% higher quality during drought than other treatments and had up to 27% less leaf wilting. As drought severity increased, 1,3-D treatments had better spectral reflectance values, indicating better physiological functioning under stress. Results of this research suggest that application of 1,3-D in sting nematode-infested soils may increase bermudagrass drought survival.
Xiaoya Cai, Laurie E. Trenholm, Jason Kruse and Jerry B. Sartain
The effects of potassium (K) on stress tolerance of turfgrass have been documented for some environmental stresses but not for shade tolerance. ‘Captiva’ st. augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] was evaluated in this research project to determine the effects of K and shade on turf performance. The study was conducted at the University of Florida Envirotron Turfgrass Research Laboratory in Gainesville, FL. Grasses were planted in 15.2-cm plastic pots in a climate-controlled glass house. Two consecutive studies were conducted, the first from 20 May to 24 Oct. 2009 and the second from 18 Jan. to 20 June 2010. Grasses were placed in either full sun or under shade structures covered with woven black shadecloth to provide 30%, 50%, or 70% shade. Potassium was applied as potassium chloride (KCl) (0–0–62) at four rates (0, 0.6, 1.2, or 2.4 g·m−2) every 30 days. In both trials, turf visual quality and color scores and dry weight (DW) of shoot and root were lowest at 70% shade and highest at 30% shade. Turf visual quality score increased as K rate increased. Leaf length increased and leaf width decreased as shade level increased. Leaf tissue total Kjedahl nitrogen (TKN) and K concentration increased as shade level increased from 0% to 70%. Thatch DW was greatest at 70% shade and lowest at 30% shade. In the first trial, turf treated with a higher K rate had longer leaf length and greater root DW. Results from this study showed that ‘Captiva’ could maintain acceptable visual quality at up to 50% shade and that K at 2.4 g·m−2 may help turfgrass grow in a shaded environment by improving turf visual quality score, root growth, and leaf tissue K concentration. Additional field plot research should be conducted to verify these responses.
Maria P. Fuentealba, Jing Zhang, Kevin E. Kenworthy, John E. Erickson, Jason Kruse and Laurie E. Trenholm
Irrigation for commercial and residential turf is becoming limiting, and water scarcity is one of the long-term challenges facing the turfgrass industry. Potential root development and profile characteristics of turfgrass provide important information regarding their drought resistance mechanisms and developing drought-resistant cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the potential root development and root profile characteristics of two bermudagrass species and two zoysiagrass species using experimental lines and commercial cultivars. The species evaluated in the study were: African bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), common bermudagrass (CB) [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon], Zoysia japonica (ZJ) (Steud), and Zoysia matrella (ZM) L. Plants were grown outdoors in clear acrylic tubes encased in poly vinyl chloride (PVC) sleeves. The experimental design was randomized complete block design with four replications. Rates of root depth development (RRDD) during the first 30 days were obtained. Root length density (RLD) in four different horizons (0–30, 30–60, 60–90, and 90–120 cm) was determined 60 days after planting. Specific root length (SRL, m·g−1) was also calculated dividing total root length by total root dry weight (RDW). The root depth in four turfgrass species increased linearly during the first 30 days after planting. Common bermudagrass (CB) had high RRDD and uniform RLD in different horizons, while ZM accumulated the majority of its roots in the upper 30 cm. Z. matrella had higher RLD than CB in the upper 30 cm. African bermudagrass had higher SRL than CB. There was limited variation within the two African bermudagrass genotypes studied except at the lowest horizon (90–120 cm). Two genotypes in CB and ZJ, respectively, including ‘UF182’ (ZJ), which consistently ranked in the top statistical group for RRDD, and RLD for every horizon, and ‘UFCD347’ (CB) demonstrated greater RLDs in the lower horizons in comparison with the commercial cultivars.
Christopher D. Ryan, J. Bryan Unruh, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Alexa J. Lamm, John E. Erickson and Laurie E. Trenholm
Every county and municipality in Florida can adopt its own unique ordinance regulating the fertilization of lawns and landscapes. With increased concern for eutrophication to state waterbodies, many have chosen to implement seasonal fertilizer restrictive periods prohibiting the application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, typically during the rainy summer months. These fertilizer “blackout” policies have been the subject of controversy among environmental activists, university scientists, and policy decision makers, with their efficacy being called into question. A Foucauldian discourse analysis was undertaken to trace the dynamics of the controversy, and survey research was conducted with Florida residents and with Florida decision makers to compare their lawncare maintenance practices, sentiments surrounding turfgrass, their trust in landscape science, as well as their awareness of policy in the city or county in which they reside. Differences were found between the two populations in terms of how many respondents fertilized, used automated irrigation systems and hand-pulled weeds. Although both populations had very neutral sentiments around turfgrass with no significant differences, Florida decision-maker respondents had a higher mean response for trust in landscape science. Only 32% of Florida resident respondents were able to accurately identify if their city or county had a blackout ordinance, compared with 81% of decision-maker respondents. Increasing civic science may be the best way for reducing this discrepancy, while also giving power to citizens in environmental policy adoption.
Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm and Jerry B. Sartain
Urban water quality management is becoming an increasingly complex and widespread problem. The long-term viability of aquatic ecosystems draining urban watersheds can be addressed through both regulatory and nutrient and water management initiatives. This review focuses on U.S. regulatory (federal, state, and local) and management (runoff, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impacts on urban water quality, specifically emphasizing programs in Florida. Because of rapid population growth in recent decades, and projected increases in the future, appropriate resource management in Florida is essential. Florida enacted stormwater regulations in 1979, before the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to regulate stormwater discharges. However, in the United States, more research has been conducted on larger structural best management practices (BMPs) (e.g., wet ponds, detention basins, etc.) compared with smaller onsite alternatives (e.g., green roofs, permeable pavements, etc.). For atmospheric deposition, research is needed to investigate processes contributing to enhanced deposition rates. Wastewater (from septic systems, treatment plants, and landfills) management is especially important in urban watersheds. Failing septic systems, elevated nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, and landfill leachate can all potentially degrade water quality. Proposed numeric nutrient criteria from the USEPA and innovative technologies such as bioreactor landfills are emergent regulatory and management strategies for improved urban water quality.