A hardy shrub rose evaluation trial was planted at three locations in Wisconsin representing U.S.D.A. cold hardiness zones 3, 4, and 5. There were nine replications of each of the 20 different, new or underused rose cultivars located at each location. The roses were then evaluated monthly (May-Nov.) for three years. Monthly data were taken and parameters included: plant height, width, flowers (color, size, amount, duration), insect injury, disease susceptibility, hips (production, size, and color in fall), and amount of winter dieback in spring. Pesticides and winter protection were not used in the trial to properly evaluate for pest resistance and cold hardiness. Pest resistance for roses varied among the cultivars. `Marie-Victorin' was the most severely infected rose by insects. Blackspot and anthracnose were severe (>60% of plant infected) on `Robusta', Red FairyTM, Kaleidoscope™, Cambridge™, and Madison™. Flower amount and continuous bloom occurred on Carefree Delight™, Cambridge™, Madison™, Knockout™, Fire Meidiland™, Mystic Meidiland™, and Red Fairy™. Hip production occurred on many of the cultivars, however, only Carefree Beauty™, `Marie-Victorin', and Mystic Meidiland™ produced colorful orange-red hips. Winter hardiness also varied between the cultivars.
Laura G. Jull*
Laura G. Jull and Frank A. Blazich
Seeds of six provenances (Escambia Co., Ala.; Santa Rosa Co., Fla.; Wayne Co., N.C.; Burlington Co., N.J.; New London Co., Conn.; and Barnstable Co., Mass.) of Atlantic white-cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were stratified (moist-prechilled) for 0, 30, 60, or 90 days at 4 °C. Following stratification, seeds were germinated at 25 °C or an 8/16-hour thermoperiod of 30/20 °C with daily photoperiods at each temperature of 0 (total darkness), 1, or 24 hours. The germination of nonstratified seed did not exceed 18%. Seeds germinated at 25 °C required 60 to 90 days stratification to maximize germination. In contrast, 30 days stratification maximized germination at 30/20 °C. Regardless of stratification duration, germination was generally lower at 25 °C than at 30/20 °C for each provenance. Averaged over all treatments, seeds of the Alabama provenance exhibited the greatest germination (61%), followed by those from Florida (45%), with the remaining provenances ranging from 20% to 38%. However, specific treatments for each provenance induced germination >50%. Germination of seeds not exposed to light was <8%, in contrast with 48% and 55% germination for daily photoperiods of 1 and 24 hours, respectively. Seeds from each of the provenances, except for Alabama, exhibited an obligate light requirement when germinated at 25 °C. At 30/20 °C, the North Carolina, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Massachusetts provenances required light for germination, whereas the Alabama and Florida provenances did not.
Laura G. Jull and Frank A. Blazich
Cones of six provenances (Escambia Co., Ala., Santa Rosa Co., Fla., Wayne Co., N.C., Burlington Co., N.J., New London Co., Conn., and Barnstable Co., Mass.) of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B. S. P.], were collected Fall 1994 (Alabama, North Carolina, New Jersey, and Connecticut), Winter 1995 (Massachusetts), or Fall 1995 (Florida). Cones were dried for 2 months, followed by seed extraction and storage at 4°C. Seeds were then graded and stratified (moist-prechilled) for 0, 30, 60, or 90 days. Following stratification, seeds were placed at 25°C or an 8/16-hr thermoperiod of 30°/20°C with daily photoperiods of 0, 1, or 24 hr. Germination was recorded every 3 days for 30 days. Temperature, stratification, and light had significant effects on germination. However, responses to these factors varied according to provenance. Averaged over all treatments, the Alabama provenance exhibited the greatest germination (61%), followed by the Florida provenance (45%), with the remaining provenances ranging from 20% to 38%. However, there were specific treatments for each provenance that resulted in germination > 50%. The three southern provenances (Alabama, Florida, and North Carolina) required 30 days of stratification for maximum germination. They did not exhibit an obligate light requirement, but photoperiods ≥ 1 hr increased germination greatly over seeds in darkness. In contrast, the northern provenances (New Jersey, Connecticut, and Massachusetts) had an obligate light requirement. These provenances only required 30 days stratification with continuous light for maximum germination. When subjected to a 1-hr photoperiod, seeds from the northern provenances required longer durations of stratification for maximum germination. Regardless of the length of stratification, the New Jersey provenance required a 24-hr photoperiod to maximize germination. When averaged over all treatments, total germination for each provenance was greater at 30°/20°C than 25°C (43% vs. 31%).
Laura G. Jull, Thomas G. Ranney, and Frank A. Blazich
Seedlings of six provenances of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] (Escambia Co., Ala., Santa Rosa Co., Fla., Wayne Co., N.C., Burlington Co., N.J., New London Co., Conn., and Barnstable Co., Mass.) were grown in controlled-environment chambers for 12 weeks under 16-hour photoperiods with 16-hour days/8-hour nights of 22/18 °C, 26/22 °C, 30/26 °C, 34/30 °C or 38/34 °C. Considerable variation in height, foliage color, and overall plant size was observed among plants from the various provenances. Seedlings from the two most northern provenances (Massachusetts and Connecticut) were most heat sensitive as indicated by decreasing growth rates at temperature regimes >22/18 °C. In contrast, plants from New Jersey and the three southern provenances (North Carolina, Florida, and Alabama) exhibited greater heat tolerance as indicated by steady or increasing growth rates and greater top and root dry weights as temperature regimes increased above 22/18 °C. Growth rates of seedlings from the four aforementioned provenances decreased rapidly at temperature regimes >30/26 °C suggesting low species tolerance to high temperatures. There were no significant differences in seedling dry matter production among provenances when temperature regimes were ≥34/30 °C. Net shoot photosynthesis and dark respiration of plants did not vary by provenance; however, net photosynthesis was temperature sensitive and decreased at temperature regimes >26/22 °C. Foliar respiration rates increased as temperature increased from 22/18 °C to 26/22 °C, but then remained relatively constant or decreased at higher temperature regimes. Plants at temperatures ≥34/30 °C exhibited severe stunting, chlorosis, and necrosis on branch tips. However, tissue concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn generally increased with temperature regimes >30/26 °C indicating that mineral nutrient concentration was not a limiting factor at high temperatures.
Laura G. Jull, Frank A. Blazich, and L.E. Hinesley
Cones of two provenances (Wayne Co., N.C., And Escambia Co., Ala.) of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B. S. P.], were collected Fall 1994. Cones were dried for 2 months, followed by seed extraction and storage at 4°C for 6 months. Seeds were graded and stratified (moist-prechilled) for 0, 30, 60, or 90 days. Following stratification, seeds were placed at 25°C or 8/16 hour thermoperiods of 25°/15°C or 30°/20°C with daily photoperiods at each temperature of 0, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 h. At the conclusion of a 30-day germination period, the Alabama provenance exhibited greater germination than the North Carolina provenance for all treatments (74% vs. 46%). There were no significant differences between 25°/15°C and 30°/20°C with regard to total percent germination for both provenances. Germination was lowest at 25°C for each provenance. In some cases, however, there were no significant differences in germination of the North Carolina provenance when stratified for 60 or 90 days and germinated at 30/20°C or 25°C (61% vs. 63%). There was a highly significant quadratic response to stratification for cumulative percent germination for both provenances. The North Carolina provenance required 90 days stratification to maximize germination (66%) in contrast to the Alabama provenance, which only needed 30 days (80%). Seeds of both provenances did not exhibit an obligate light requirement. However, photoperiods ≥1/2 h increased germination greatly over seeds in darkness (29% vs. 62%).
Laura G. Jull, Stuart L. Warren, and Frank A. Blazich
Stem cuttings of `Yoshino' Japanese cedar [Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D. Don `Yoshino'], consisting of tips (terminal 20 cm) of first-order laterals, distal halves (terminal 10 cm) of tips of first-order laterals, and proximal halves (basal 10 cm) of tips of first-order laterals, or tips (terminal 10 cm) of second-order laterals, were taken on four dates that represented four growth stages (softwood, semi-hardwood, hardwood, and pre-budbreak). The cuttings were treated with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 mg IBA/liter. Branch order affected all rooting measurements at each growth stage. Regardless of growth stage, tips of and proximal halves of first-order laterals containing lignified wood had the highest percent rooting, root count, total root length, root area, and root dry weight. Hardwood tips of and semi-hardwood proximal halves of first-order laterals exhibited the highest overall rooting (87%), followed by softwood proximal halves of first-order laterals (78%). Rooting of distal halves of first-order laterals and tips of second-order laterals never exceeded 55% and 34%, respectively, at any growth stage. IBA treatment influenced percent rooting, root count, total root length, root area, and root dry weight of semi-hardwood, hardwood, and pre-budbreak cuttings, except for root dry weight of semi-hardwood cuttings. IBA had no affect on softwood cuttings. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).