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  • Author or Editor: Larry Stein x
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Abstract

Adjuvants at various concentrations were evaluated for phytotoxicity and capacity to enhance foliar absorption of N and P. Some adjuvants among the following classes were phytotoxic to soybean (Glycine max Merr.) leaves at concentrations of 0.25% and 0.5% active ingredient on a volume or weight/volume basis: sulfonates, alcohols, ethyoxylated hydrocarbons, esters, sulfates, and amines. Many adjuvants in the following classes: alcohols, sulfonates, ethoxylated hydrocarbons, polyethylene glycols, carbohydrates, proteins, and phosphates were not phytotoxic at concentrations as high as 1.0%. Sometimes increasing phytotoxicity occurred at increasing concentrations, but the humectants, such as glycerol and propylene glycol, were not phytotoxic at concentrations of 10.0%. Selected adjuvants were mixed with a foliar fertilizer (12.0N–1.7P–3.3K–0.5S) and evaluated for enhancement of foliar absorption of N and P. The average increases in percentage of N and P for the glycerol, lecithin, and Pluronic L-121 (an ethyoxylated hydrocarbon), and foliar fertilizer combinations, respectively, were 8.9%, 2.2%, and 2.5% for N and 34.2%, 27.6%, and 20.8% for P over the foliar fertilizer control, respectively, for the 3 adjuvants.

Open Access

Abstract

Summer and fall irrigation treatments increased pecan yield, trunk diameter, and percent kernel over nonirrigated trees. Sticktights and viviparous nuts were reduced by late-season irrigation in a dry year (1984). All irrigation treatments increased pecan size; the most frequently irrigated plots had the largest pecans and least tree water stress as measured by a pressure bomb in 1984. The less water was applied in Sept, and Oct. 1984, the more sticktights resulted. Late-season water stress in all treatments indicated that water was needed just before shuck opening.

Open Access

The objective of this work was to determine the effect of within-row plant spacing and mulching on growth, quality, and yield of an experimental semi-savoy spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) genotype `Ark-310' to produce a high quality fresh market product. Within-row spacings were 15 and 25 cm, and mulching treatments were bare-soil and black polyethylene mulch. Plants were destructively sampled weekly (1995-96) or bi-weekly (1997-98) for leaf area (LA), leaf number, leaf dry weight (LDW) and root dry weight (RDW) measurements. Plants grown on plastic mulch at 25-cm spacing had greater LA, LDW, and RDW than when grown at 15-cm spacing on mulch or bare-soil. Leaf number and specific leaf area (LA/LDW) were less affected by either spacing or mulching. The amount of soil on harvested leaves was lower on plants grown on plastic mulch in both years. In one year, total yields (MT/ha-1) were 42% higher at 15-cm than at 25-cm plant spacing, while mulch increased yields by 20%, independently of plant spacing. These effects were not evident in the year with higher rainfall (1997-98).

Free access

Pecan is a difficult species to propagate by grafting. The whip graft, bark graft, and four-flap graft, the most often-used techniques for pecan grafting, require dormant scions, collected and stored for 60 to 120 days prior to spring-season grafting. Poor graft success is often blamed on handling and storage environment of the scionwood. Moisture content of packing material, waxing of cut ends, and use of polyethylene bags was evaluated in a controlled experiment in 1998 and 1999. Scions were cut in early February each year, and stored for 60 to 70 days in a household refrigerator under different treatment regimes. Scion viability was tested by bark grafting mature pecan trees in Fairhope, Ala., and Uvalde, Texas. In 1998, graft success rate was equally good among scions stored in polyethylene bags with different amounts of added moisture, whether cut ends were waxed or not. Moisture loss of the scions during storage was affected each year by the amount of water added to packing material and by waxing the cut-ends, but the differences did not impact graft success. An interaction of not waxing the cut ends and very wet packing material reduced graft success at Fairhope, Ala., but not Uvalde, Texas, in 1999.

Free access

Abstract

Ethephon was trunk injected into the transpiration stream of pecan trees 10 to 21 days before shuck split in an attempt to expedite shuck opening in 1983. Ethephon concentrations were based on the estimated amount of water flowing through the tree per day. At College Station and Hondo, Texas, a 10 ppm injection significantly increased shuck opening. Leaf drop was only 35% at 10 ppm compared to much higher leaf drop in previous research. There was no difference in number of nuts set and the extent of limb dieback between the control trees and those trunk injected with 10 ppm ethephon. At Ft. Stockton and Midkiff, Texas, injections of 10, 20, and 40 ppm increased nut opening and early leaf drop, but reduced fruit set in the following year (1984). There was no limb dieback at these locations. Injections of trees in El Paso failed to cause shuck opening.

Open Access

Competition for limited water supplies is increasing world wide. Especially hard hit are the irrigated crop production regions, such as the Lower Rio Grande Valley and the Winter Garden areas of south Texas. To develop production techniques for reducing supplemental water needs of vegetable crops, an ancient water harvesting technique called rainfall capture was adapted to contemporary, large scale irrigated muskmelon (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus L.) production systems. The rainfall capture system developed consisted of plastic mulched miniature water catchments located on raised seed beds. This system was compared with conventional dry land and irrigated melon production. Rainfall capture resulted in 108% average yield increase over the conventional dry land technique. When compared with conventional furrow irrigation, rainfall capture increased marketable muskmelon yield as much as 5355 lb/acre (6000 kg·ha-1). As anticipated,the drip irrigation/plastic mulch system exceeded rainfall capture in total and marketable fruit yield. The results of this study suggest that rainfall capture can reduce total supplemental water use in muskmelon production. The major benefit of the rainfall capture system is believed to be in its ability to eliminate or decrease irrigation water needed to fill the soil profile before planting.

Full access

Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) cultivars are commercially propagated by grafting and budding. The whip graft, bark graft and four-flap graft, the most frequently used techniques for pecan grafting, require dormant scions, collected and stored for 60 to 120 days before the spring grafting season. Poor graft success is sometimes attributed to poor handling and storage of the scionwood. Moisture content of packing material, sealing cut ends of the scions with wax, and use of polyethylene bags was evaluated in 1998 and 1999. Scions were collected in early February each year, and stored for 60 to 70 days in a household refrigerator at 2 °C (35.6 °F) under different treatment regimes. Scion viability was tested by bark grafting on limbs of mature pecan trees. Moisture of the scions was affected each year by the amount of water added to packing material and by sealing the cut ends, but the differences did not impact graft success. In 1998, graft success rate was equally good among scions stored in polyethylene bags with different amounts of added moisture, whether cut ends were sealed or not. Graft success in 1999 was affected by an interaction of sealing the cut ends, packing material and location of grafting.

Full access

Stemphylium leaf spot, caused by Stemphylium vesicarium, and white rust, caused by Albugo occidentalis, can cause significant losses in spinach production. Management of these foliar diseases of spinach has become increasingly challenging with the development of fungicide resistance in some pathogen populations, high planting density and overhead irrigation used for baby leaf spinach production, and the fact that >60% of fresh market spinach production in the United States is certified organic. To identify spinach cultivars with resistance to Stemphylium leaf spot and white rust, a field trial was performed near Crystal City, TX, USA, in 2021 (79 cultivars), 2022 (87 cultivars), and 2023 (63 cultivars). Each year, the plants were inoculated with S. vesicarium and rated for disease severity. Plants were also rated for white rust severity that resulted from natural infection during the 2021 and the 2022 trials. During each trial, 11% to 27% of the cultivars were identified as resistant to Stemphylium leaf spot, and another 29% to 48% had moderately resistant reactions. In contrast, only 5 of 79 cultivars (6%) in the 2021 trial did not develop symptoms of white rust, and all 87 cultivars evaluated in the 2022 trial had symptoms of white rust. Although there was no significant correlation between mean Stemphylium leaf spot ratings and mean white rust ratings during these trials, the cultivars Colusa, Kodiak, PV-1569, and PV-1664 displayed resistant or moderately resistant responses to both diseases in at least two trials. Therefore, processing and fresh market spinach growers have resistant cultivars from which to select to reduce the economic impacts of Stemphylium leaf spot and white rust.

Open Access

The Coordinated Educational Marketing Assistance Program (CEMAP) is one of the oldest marketing assistance programs for ornamentals in the United States. The goal of this program is to identify outstanding plants for Texas and to provide support for the nursery industry, thereby making plants with superior performance available to the people of Texas. The CEMAP program is a cooperative effort between the Texas nursery industry and Texas A&M Univ. The CEMAP Executive Board has eight individuals representing extension, research, and teaching plus two administrative liasions and the Industry Advisory Board has ≈50 members from all segments of the ornamentals industry in Texas. Funding for the CEMAP program comes from direct industry support and from the public through the sale of plant tags or other promotional materials which bear the Texas Superstars logo. The logo is trademarked and licensed to printing companies who handle the administration of royalties to the program. The Executive Board makes the final decision about which plants are designated Texas Superstars. Promotional support for the plants is provided by CEMAP through point of purchase materials and publicity through print, radio, and television. In addition, the Texas Nursery and Landscape Association in cooperation with the Texas Department of Agriculture are conducting a publicity campaign to inform the public about Texas Superstars.

Free access