Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Laosheng Wu x
Clear All Modify Search

Summer decline of annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) putting greens is a major concern of golf course superintendents. Low soil water infiltration rates and high concentrations of salts in the root zone are contributing factors. This study was conducted to determine the effects of summer cultivation treatments on field infiltration rates of water, soil salinity, oxygen diffusion rates (ODR), bulk density, total and air-filled porosity, and root weight density. This research was conducted during two summer seasons (1996 and 1997) on a practice putting green located at Industry Hills Golf Courses, City of Industry, Calif. The green was constructed to U.S. Golf Association (USGA) specifications in 1978. Cultivation treatments consisted of: 1-3) water injection cultivation (WIC) applied with a Toro HydroJect every 21 d (raised position), and every 14 or 21 d (lowered position); 4) solid tine cultivation (STC) applied every 14 d; and 5) no cultivation (check). Results showed WIC and STC significantly increased field infiltration rates of water and lowered overall soil electrical conductivity of the extract (ECe) at depths of 2.5 to 7.5 cm and 7.5 to 15.0 cm in the root zone. The effects of WIC, raised position, did not differ significantly from those of STC, but infiltration rates of water were greater on all rating dates. Cultivation treatments had no significant effects on overall soil ODR, bulk density, and porosity or on overall root weight density.

Free access

Accurate measurement of crop water use under different water and nitrogen (N) conditions is of great importance for irrigation scheduling and N management. This research investigated the effect of water and N status on stem sap flow of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in an unheated solar greenhouse in northwest China. A water experiment included sufficient water supply (T1) based on in situ water content measurement, two-thirds T1 (T2) and half T1 (T3) under a typical N application rate (N1); i.e., 57.4 g·m−2 N. The N experiment included N1, two-thirds N1 (N2), and half N1 (N3) under T2 irrigation. Results showed that deficit water supply reduced the stem sap flow by 22.1% and 42.8% in T2 and T3, respectively, compared with T1. The average daily stem sap flow between N1 and N2 was similar, and both were higher than that of N3. Significant differences between N1 or N2 and N3 were only observed on four dates (totally 34 days). Nighttime stem sap flow accounted for 6.0% to 6.9% of the daily value for the water treatments and 5.7% to 8.5% of the daily value for the N treatments. No significant differences for nighttime stem sap flow were found among water and N treatments. The daily stem sap flow was significantly and positively correlated with solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and reference evapotranspiration under the water and N experiments. The slopes of the regression equations between the daily stem sap flow and these parameters were lower when soil water availability was limited, whereas the slopes of the regressions had no significant differences among N treatments. A parabolic relationship between the ratio of the daily stem sap flow of water deficit treatments to that of T1 and soil relative extractable water content was observed.

Free access

Nursery growers must implement “Best Management Practices” (BMPs) to mitigate runoff and leaching of pollutants. However, there is little data on the effectiveness of BMPs, and further research is needed. Growers require training to minimize runoff and capital to comply with evolving regulations. We collected irrigation efficiency data at 26 nursery sites using catch cans. Uniformity value was calculated as: DU = 100 × (Average of the “Low Quarter”/Average of All Measurements). Results showed that one-third of the nurseries had irrigation uniformities below 67%, and only one nursery exceeded 82%. Continuous flow monitoring at 10-minute intervals was conducted at three nursery sites to determine daily and monthly variation. One hundred samples of the runoff were taken four times at each nursery and analyzed for nitrate, chloride, and sulfate. We developed a 29-page checklist of BMPs to reduce runoff, which we used to survey 53 growers in Ventura County. After completing the survey, 20 growers applied for funds from a 1.2 million dollar cost-share program that we initiated. This program provides funds to implement improved technologies to reduce runoff and/or conserve water; funds were awarded to 18 nurseries. We are collecting monitoring data from each cooperating nursery implementing improvements. These data measure the number of BMPs used by growers, provide a current “snapshot” of the industry, and document the effectiveness of future BMP implementation. We offer on-farm consulting, and conducted eight water quality/irrigation educational programs—four in Spanish. We elevated grower awareness concerning regulations and options for reducing runoff, and the data will be useful in evaluating future improvements.

Free access

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is one of the most salt-sensitive crops and one of the highest value crops per acre. In the United States, avocados are grown primarily in California, in regions experiencing both scarcity of freshwater and salinization of available water supplies. Thus, our objectives were to evaluate avocado rootstocks for salt tolerance and evaluate the relationship between leaf ion concentrations, trunk diameter, leaf burn, and fruit yield. Our field experiment evaluated the salt tolerance of the Hass scion grafted onto 13 different avocado rootstocks using the Brokaw clonal rootstock technique. The experiment consisted of 156 trees arranged in a randomized complete block design with six replications of each saline [electrical conductivity (EC) = 1.5 dS·m–1, Cl = 4.94 mmol·L–1] and nonsaline (EC= 0.65 dS·m–1, Cl = 0.73 mmol·L–1) irrigation water treatment. We collected soil samples and leaves, then analyzed them for major ions. The rootstocks R0.06, R0.07, PP14, and R0.17, which had high concentrations of Cl and Na in the leaves, were the least salt tolerant, with 100% mortality in the rows irrigated with saline water for 23 months. The rootstocks R0.05, PP40, R0.18, and Dusa, which had low concentrations of Cl ions in the fully expanded leaves, were least affected by salinity, and these rootstocks exhibited the greatest yields, largest trunk diameters, and greatest survival percentages in the saline treatment. Yield and growth parameters correlated well with leaf Cl concentration, but not Na, indicating that salt damage in avocado is primarily a result of Cl ion toxicity. Under arid inland environments, no variety performed satisfactorily when irrigated with an EC = 1.5 dS·m–1 water (Cl = 4.94 mmol·L–1). However, the more tolerant varieties survived at soil salinity levels that would apparently be fatal to varieties reported earlier in the literature.

Free access

Production nurseries may be significant sources of nutrients and pesticides in runoff as a result of the intensity at which fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation water are applied. Concentrations of nutrients and pesticides in runoff from production nurseries are not extensively documented. Runoff from 11 production nurseries in southern California using either recycling or detention basins was monitored for nutrients and pesticides. For six sites, runoff volume was determined and nutrient loads in runoff were calculated. Water use data, percentage of water recycled, and construction costs were determined for sites with recycling systems. Nutrient concentrations, mass loads, and pesticide detections in runoff from some sites would have been of concern without the implementation of detention or recycle basins. There were few differences in nutrient concentrations or pesticide detections between runoff from irrigation and that from precipitation events. This suggests the need for management practices and technologies that address runoff from both irrigation and precipitation events. Water use and cost data suggested that the implementation of recycling systems may be more beneficial and cost-efficient for larger facilities.

Free access

Potential water quality impacts of agricultural production include runoff and leaching losses of nutrients, pesticides, and sediment. Stormwater runoff and soil water samples were collected from citrus (Citrus spp.), avocado (Persea americana), and ornamental nursery sites in Ventura County, CA, across 19 months. Nitrate–nitrite–nitrogen concentrations in runoff ranged from 0.07 to 31.1 mg·L−1, with medians for groves and nurseries of 4.2 and 5.7 mg·L−1, respectively. Constituents in runoff exceeding benchmarks for surface waters included turbidity, chlorpyrifos, and some organochlorine pesticides. When detected, chlorpyrifos concentration was linearly related to sample turbidity (P = 0.0025, r2 = 0.49). This suggests that the retention of waterborne sediments on-site may be an effective method for mitigating runoff of this pesticide. Bifenthrin, permethrin, and diazinon were also detected in runoff, but concentrations did not exceed water quality benchmarks. Nutrient concentrations in soil water were generally similar to nutrient concentrations in stormwater runoff, suggesting that potential groundwater contamination from leaching at citrus, avocado, and nursery sites may be as much of a concern as stormwater from these operations, particularly on sites with sandy or structured soil texture or flat topography. Nitrate–nitrite–nitrogen and orthophosphate concentrations in soil water were linearly related to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer application rates across sites, respectively (P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.49 and 0.50, respectively), suggesting that proper nutrient management is important in reducing potential groundwater contamination at these operations.

Free access