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  • Author or Editor: Lambert McCarty x
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Buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] is a turfgrass species traditionally adapted to low-rainfall areas that may incur unacceptable weed encroachment when grown in higher rainfall areas such as Florida. An experiment was performed to evaluate the tolerance of two new buffalograss cultivars, `Oasis' and `Prairie', to postemergence herbicides commonly used for grass, broadleaf, and sedge weed control. Twenty to 40 days were required for each cultivar to recover from treatment with asulam, MSMA, and sethoxydim (2.24, 2.24, and 0.56 kg-ha-l, respectively). Other herbicides used for postemergence grass weed control (metsulfuron, quinclorac, and diclofop at 0.017, 0.56, and 1.12 kg·ha-1, respectively) did not cause unacceptable buffalograss injury. Herbicides used for postemergence broadleaf weed control, triclopyr, 2,4-D, sulfometuron, dicamba (0.56, 1.12, 0.017, and 0.56 kg·ha-1, respectively), and a three-way combination of 2,4-D + dicamba + mecoprop (1.2 + 0.54 + 0.13 kg·ha-1), caused 20 to 30 days of unacceptable or marginally acceptable turfgrass quality, while 20 days were required for `Prairie' buffalograss to recover from atrazine treatments. `Oasis' buffalograss did not fully recover from 2,4-D or 2,4-D + dicamba + mecoprop through 40 days after treatment. Herbicides used for postemergence sedge control, bentazon and imazaquin, caused slightly reduced, but acceptable, levels of turf quality in both cultivars throughout the experiment. Chemical names used: 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (atrazine); methyl[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]carhamate (asulam); 3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon); 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba); (±)-2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy]propanoic acid (diclofop); 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid (imazaquin); (±)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (mecoprop); 2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]benzoic acid (metsulfuron); monosodium salt of methylarsonic acid (MSMA); 2-[1-(ethoxyimino)butyl]-5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one(sethoxydim); 2-[[[[(4,6-dimethylethyl-2-pyrimidinyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]benzoic acid (sulfometuron); [(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid (triclopyr); (2,4-dichlorophenoxyl)acetic acid (2,4-D); 3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).

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Research was conducted in two studies at the Clemson University Greenhouse Complex, Clemson, S.C., with the objective of evaluating `TifEagle' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) response to paclobutrazol. TifEagle bermudagrass plugs were placed in 40 cm polyvinylchloride containers, with 20.3-cm-diameters and built to U.S. Golf Association specifications with 85 sand: 15 peatmoss (by volume) rootzone mix. Paclobutrazol was applied to separate containers at 0, 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha-1 (a.i.) per 6 weeks. Minor phytotoxicity occurred with 0.14 kg·ha-1 applications, but turf quality was unaffected. Severe bermudagrass phytotoxicity occurred from paclobutrazol at 0.28 and 0.42 kg·ha-1. Total clipping yield from 12 sampling dates was reduced 65%, 84%, and 92% from 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha-1, respectively. Root mass after 12 weeks was reduced 28%, 45%, and 61% for turf treated 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha-1, respectively. Paclobutrazol reduced root length 13%, 19%, and 19% by 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha-1, respectively. Turf discoloration and negative rooting responses advocate caution when using paclobutrazol on `TifEagle' bermudagrass. Chemical names used: (+/-)-(R*,R*)-ß-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-alpha-(1, 1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).

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Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) is an effective plant growth retardant for hybrid bermudagrass; however, growth responses of various dwarf-type bermudagrass cultivars to TE have not been reported. Two 60-day greenhouse experiments were conducted at the Clemson Greenhouse Research Complex, Clemson, S.C., to evaluate the response of `Champion', `FloraDwarf', `MiniVerde', `MS Supreme', `Tifdwarf', and `TifEagle' bermudagrass with and without TE at 0.0125 kg·ha-1 a.i. per 10 days. From 20 to 60 days after initial treatments, TE enhanced visual quality 9% to 13% for all cultivars. From four samples, TE reduced clippings 63%, 63%, 69%, 62%, 64%, and 46% for `Champion', `FloraDwarf', `MiniVerde', `Tifdwarf', and `TifEagle', respectively. Trinexapac-ethyl enhanced root mass 23% and 27% for `MiniVerde' and `FloraDwarf' bermudagrass, respectively. `Champion', `MS Supreme', `Tifdwarf', and `TifEagle' bermudagrass treated with TE had similar root mass to the untreated respective cultivars. Among untreated cultivars, `FloraDwarf', `MiniVerde', `MS Supreme', and `Tifdwarf' had similar root masses; however compared to these cultivars, `Champion' and `TifEagle' had 33% and 81% less root mass, respectively. Root length was unaffected by TE; however, `Champion' and `TifEagle' averaged 20% and 36% less root length compared to `Tifdwarf' bermudagrass, respectively, while `FloraDwarf', `MiniVerde', and `MS Supreme' had similar root length to `Tifdwarf'. Trinexapac-ethyl safely enhanced turf quality and reduced clipping yield at 0.0125 kg·ha-1 per 10 days without inhibiting root growth of six dwarf-type bermudagrasses. Chemical name used: [4-(cyclopropyl-[α]-hydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl).

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Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are commonly used to enhance putting green quality and ball roll distances but their effects with various mowing operations have not been reported. Three experiments were conducted and repeated at Clemson University, Clemson, SC, on an `L-93' creeping bentgrass putting green to evaluate the effects of mowing operations and PGRs on diurnal ball roll distances. The PGRs tested included ethephon at (a.i.) 3.8 kg·ha-1, flurprimidol at (a.i.) 0.28 kg·ha-1, paclobutrazol at (a.i.) 0.28 kg·ha-1, and trinexapac-ethyl at (a.i.) 0.05 kg·ha-1. Mowing operations tested included rolling vs. mowing, morning mowing vs. morning plus afternoon mowing, and single vs. double morning mowing, all with and without PGRs. PGR by mowing operation interactions did not occur in any experiments. Ball roll distances decreased from 12:00 hr to evening observations in all experiments. In Experiment 1, rolling the green without mowing reduced ball roll distance 4% (5 cm) compared to mowing. Turf rolled without mowing in the morning and treated with flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl produced similar ball roll at 12:00, 15:00, and 18:00 hr to mowed untreated turf. In Experiment 2, all plots were mowed at 08:00 hr and half of each plot was remowed at 12:30 hr. The second mowing at 12:30 hr enhanced ball roll distances 6% (8 cm) over the day. Turf mowed only at 08:00 and treated with paclobutrazol and trinexapac-ethyl had greater or equal ball roll distances at 12:30, 15:30, and 18:30 hr to untreated turf that had a second mowing at 12:30 hr. Turf receiving ethephon and 08:00 hr mowing had 4% to 12% (4 to 17 cm) shorter ball roll distances throughout the day compared to untreated turf mowed at 8:00 and 08:00+12:30 hr, respectively. In the third experiment, mowing twice in the morning increased ball roll 3% (4 cm) compared to mowing once. Trinexapac-ethyl and paclobutrazol treated turf mowed once in the morning had greater or equal ball roll distances throughout the day to untreated turf mowed twice in the morning. Overall, PGR use may provide putting green ball roll distances similar to or greater than untreated turf despite additional mowing; however, ethephon reduced ball roll distances regardless of mowing operations. Chemical names used: [4-(cyclopropyl-[α]-hydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); {α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluoro-methoxy) phenyl] 5-pyrimidine-methanol} (flurprimidol); (+/-)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1, 1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid] (ethephon).

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Dwarf bermudagrass morphological characteristics following the use of plant growth regulators have not been reported. The objective of this greenhouse study was to determine short-term effects of seven plant growth regulators on clipping yield, chlorophyll concentration, and root mass of `TifEagle' bermudagrass. Growth regulators tested included ethephon, fenarimol, flurprimidol, maleic hydrazide, mefluidide, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Two applications of each compound were made over a 6-week period. Root mass was reduced 39% by fenarimol and 43% by flurprimidol, while other PGRs had root mass similar to untreated turf. `TifEagle' bermudagrass treated with paclobutrazol, mefluidide, fenarimol, and flurprimidol averaged 45% less root mass than trinexapac-ethyl-treated turf. Trinexapac-ethyl was the only compound to reduce clippings and enhance turf quality without negative rooting effects. Chemical names used: [4-(cyclopropyl-[α]-hydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); {α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluoro-methoxy) phenyl] 5-pyrimidine-methanol} (flurprimidol); (+/-)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1, 1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); (N-[2,4-dimethyl-5 [[(trifluoro-methyl)-sulfonyl] amino]phenyl]acetamide) (mefluidide); [1,2-dihydro-3,6-pyridazine-dione] (maleic hydrazide); [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid] (ethephon); and (2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol) (fenarimol).

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Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are often applied in combinations to reduce turf clippings, enhance turf quality, and suppress Poa annua L.; however, effects of PGR combinations on putting green ball roll distances have not been reported. Two field experiments were conducted on an `L-93' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Huds.) putting green in Clemson, S.C., to investigate effects of four PGRs with and without a subsequent application of ethephon at 3.8 kg·ha–1 a.i. 6 days after initial treatments. The PGRs initially applied included ethephon at 3.8 kg·ha–1 a.i., flurprimidol at 0.28 kg·ha–1 a.i., paclobutrazol at 0.28 kg·ha–1 a.i., and trinexapac-ethyl at 0.05 kg·ha–1 a.i.. Ball roll distances were enhanced 3% to 6% (4 to 8 cm) by exclusive flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl treatments. The additional ethephon application reduced ball distances 2% to 9% (2 to 11 cm). Paclobutrazol and trinexapac-ethyl treated turf receiving the additional ethephon application had longer or similar ball roll distances to non-PGR treated turf. The additional ethephon treatment reduced turf quality to unacceptable levels 1 and 2 weeks after applications. However, bentgrass treated previously with trinexapac-ethyl and paclobutrazol had 8 to 16% higher visual quality following the additional ethephon treatment relative to non-PGR treated turf receiving the subsequent ethephon application. Overall, ethephon may have deleterious effects on monostand creeping bentgrass putting green quality and ball roll distances; however, applying ethephon with GA inhibitors could mitigate these adverse effects. Chemical names used: [4-(cyclopropyl-[α]-hydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); {α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluoro-methoxy) phenyl] 5-pyrimidine-methanol} (flurprimidol); (+/-)–(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1, 1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid] (ethephon).

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Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) is a plant growth regulator registered for periodic applications on creeping bentgrass greens but ball roll as affected by various TE regimens have not been reported. Field experiments were conducted in Clemson, S.C., from May to July 2003 and 2004 on an `L-93' creeping bentgrass putting green. Turf received a total of 0.2 kg·ha–1 a.i. of TE over 12 weeks in three application regimens: 0.017 kg·ha–1 per week, 0.033 kg·ha–1 per 2 weeks, and 0.05 kg·ha-1 per 3 weeks plus a control. Ball roll distances were measured weekly with a stimpmeter in the morning (900 to 1100 hr) and evening (>1700 hr). Morning ball roll distances were generally longer than evening. Ball roll distances increased from June to July 2003 and from May to July 2004, likely resulting from greater bentgrass summer heat stress during the test period. Turf treated with biweekly and triweekly TE regimens had enhanced ball roll on three and four dates, respectively, but inconsistencies occurred likely from reduced efficacy with greater time between repeated applications. Weekly TE applications enhanced ball roll distances from the untreated by 5% to 8% on six dates. Turf injury did not occur following TE applications regardless of regimen. Overall, weekly TE applications increased ball roll distances more frequently than biweekly and triweekly regimens, but enhancements were inconsistent over the 2 years. Chemical name used: [4-(cyclopropyl-[α]-hydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); (tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (chlorothalonil); [methyl(E)-2-(2-(6-(2-cyanophenoxy) pyrimidin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-methoxyacrylate] (azoxystrobin); [aluminum tris(0-ethyl phosphonate)] (fosetyl-al); [N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl) alanine methyl ester] (metalaxyl); [(1-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl) -methyl]-14-1,2,4-triazole] (propiconazole).

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Plant growth regulators are applied to inhibit uneven shoot growth of putting green turf but research is limited on responses of dwarf-type bermudagrass cultivars to growth inhibition. Experiments were conducted at the Clemson University Greenhouse Complex with `Champion' and `TifEagle' bermudagrass grown in polyvinylchloride containers with 40 cm depths and 177 cm2 areas built to United States Golf Association specification. Flurprimidol was applied at 0.14, 0.28, and 0.48 kg·ha–1 a.i. and paclobutrazol at 0.14 kg·ha–1 a.i. on separate containers. Flurprimidol at 0.28 and 0.42 kg·ha-1 caused 17% and 31% reduction in turf color 5 weeks after treatment (WAT), respectively. `Champion' exhibited unacceptable turf injury (>30%) 2 WAT from paclobutrazol and all flurprimidol rates. `TifEagle' had unacceptable turf injury from flurprimidol at 0.42 kg·ha–1 2 WAT, 0.28 kg·ha–1 3 WAT, and 0.14 kg·ha–1 4 WAT that did not recover. Moderate injury (16% to 30%) was observed from paclobutrazol on `TifEagle' but ratings were acceptable. After 6 weeks, flurprimidol at 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha–1 reduced bermudagrass green shoot density (GSD) per square centimeter by 20%, 40%, and 40%, respectively, while paclobutrazol reduced GSD 12%. `TifEagle' total clipping yield was reduced 60%, 76%, and 86% from flurprimidol at 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha–1, respectively, and 37% from paclobutrazol. `Champion' total clipping yield was reduced 82%, 90%, and 90% from flurprimidol at 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha–1, respectively, and 58% from paclobutrazol. After 6 weeks, flurprimidol reduced `Champion' total root mass by 44% over all three rates. `Champion' treated with paclobutrazol had similar total root mass to the untreated. `TifEagle' treated with all PGRs had similar rooting to the untreated. Overall, flurprimidol will likely not be suitable for dwarf bermudagrass maintenance at these rates; however paclobutrazol may have potential at ≤0.14 kg·ha–1. Chemical names used: Flurprimidol {α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluoro-methoxy) phenyl] 5-pyrimidine-methanol}; Paclobutrazol, (+/-)–(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1, 1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol.

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Ethephon is an effective growth retardant for suppressing Poa annua (L.) seedheads in creeping bentgrass putting greens; however, ethylene induction may cause bentgrass leaf chlorosis, reduced rooting, and quality decline. Two greenhouse experiments investigated the effects of nitrogen (N) fertility and ethephon applications on `L-93' creeping bentgrass over 9 weeks. Ethephon was applied at 0, 3.8, and 7.6 kg·ha–1 a.i. per 3 weeks and N was applied at 4 and 8 kg·ha–1·week–1. Ethephon applications linearly reduced bentgrass quality on every weekly observation. Increased N rate to 8 kg·ha–1·week–1 improved turf quality about 10% to 20% and 10% to 30% from ethephon applied at 3.8 and 7.6 kg·ha–1 per 3 weeks, respectively. Increased N rate to 8 kg·ha–1·week–1 enhanced shoot growth 30% but reduced root mass and length 12% and 11%, respectively. After 9 weeks, ethephon reduced root length by about 30% and root mass about 35% at both rates. From nine weekly samples, ethephon reduced dry clipping yield 10% and 16% at 3.8 and 7.6 kg·ha–1 per 3 weeks, respectively. From 2 to 9 weeks after initial treatments, ethephon linearly increased leaf water content. Increasing N fertility effectively reduced bentgrass leaf chlorosis from ethephon; however, repeat applications of ethephon and increased N may restrict bentgrass root growth. Chemical names used: [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid] (ethephon).

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