Phomopsis cucurbitae is a latent infecting pathogen that infects unripe muskmelon fruit, but causes decay after harvest. This fungus causes severe losses during muskmelon fruit storage and marketing in the U.S., Japan, and some Central American countries. Previous studies showed that the fungus produced the cell wall-degrading enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) in both culture and muskmelon fruit tissue. The role of P. cucurbitae PG in the fruit decay process and its relation to latent infection is not well-understood. A prominent PG isozyme produced by the fungus in decayed fruit was purified to homogeneity by a sequence of extraction, ultrafiltration, preparative isoelectric focusing, anion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. This isozyme exhibited endo-activity, a molecular weight of 54 kDa according to SDS-PAGE, and a pI of 4.2 based on IEF-PAGE. Isozyme activity was optimal at 40–45°C and pH 5.0. It had a Km of 44.7 g/ml and a Vmax of 0.313. The purified isozyme also effectively macerated mature muskmelon fruit tissues. This isozyme was the most prominent of the PG isozymes produced by P. cucurbitae in decaying fruit, and may play an important role in postharvest decay.
J.X. Zhang, B.D. Bruton, and C.L. Biles
L.X. Zhang, W.C. Chang, Y.J. Wei, L. Liu, and Y.P. Wang
Cryopreservation of pollen from two ginseng species —Panax ginseng L. and P. quinquefolium L.—was studied. Freezing anthers that served as pollen carriers to –40C before liquid N storage affected pollen viability little after liquid N storage. Anther moisture content affected pollen viability significantly when stored in liquid N. The ideal anther moisture content to carry pollen for liquid N storage was 32% to 26% for P. ginseng and 27% to 17% for P. quinquefolium. Viability of pollen from P. quinquefolium anthers with 25.3% moisture content changed little after 11 months of liquid N storage.