The inheritance of resistance to a host-specific isolate (Shinn) of Alternaria alternata (Fr.:Fr.) Keissl. from `Minneola' tangelo (a cross between Citrus paradisi Macf. `Duncan' and C. reticulata Blanco `Dancy') was shown to be controlled by a single recessive allele, aaM1, within the citrus genome. A backcross between resistant `Clementine' mandarin (C. reticulata) and susceptible LB#8-10 (a hybrid of `Clementine' mandarin and `Minneola' tangelo) resulted in 61 resistant (R) and 58 susceptible (S) plants (χ2 = 0.0756, P ≥ 0.05), but the reciprocal cross deviated from the expected 1R:1S ratio (87 R and 36 S plants (χ2 = 21.1463, P ≥ 0.05). A dominant allele, AaM1, of this resistance gene was found in a loose coupling phase linkage with two RAPD markers, P12850 (15.3 cM) and AL31250 (36.7 cM), after JOINMAP computer analysis.
Zeynel Dalkilic, L.W. Timmer and Frederick G. Gmitter Jr.
Wei Li, Rongcai Yuan, Jacqueline K. Burns, L.W. Timmer and Kuang-Ren Chung
Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmonds infects citrus flower petals, causing brownish lesions, young fruit drop, production of persistent calyces, and leaf distortion. This suggests that hormones may be involved in symptom development. To identify the types of hormones, cDNA clones encoding proteins related to ethylene and jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) regulation, cell-wall modification, signal transduction, or fruit ripening were used to examine differential gene expressions in calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour) and/or `Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) after C. acutatum infection. Northern-blot analyses revealed that the genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase and 12-oxophytodienoate required for ethylene and JA biosynthesis, respectively, were highly up-regulated in both citrus species. Both gene transcripts increased markedly in petals, young fruit and stigmas, but not in calyces. The transcripts of the genes encoding IAA glucose transferase and auxin-responsive GH3-like protein, but not IAA amino acid hydrolyase, also markedly increased in both species 5 days after inoculation. The expansin and chitinase genes were slightly up-regulated, whereas the senescence-induced nuclease and ß-galactosidase genes were down-regulated in calamondin. No differential expression of transcripts was detected for the genes encoding expansin, polygalacturonase, and serine-threonine kinase in sweet orange. As compared to the water controls, infection of C. acutatum increased ethylene and IAA levels by 3- and 140-fold. In contrast, abscisic acid (ABA) levels were not significantly changed. Collectively, the results indicate that infection by C. acutatum of citrus flowers triggered differential gene expressions, mainly associated with IAA, ethylene, and JA production and regulation, and increased hormone concentrations, consistent with the hypothesis of the involvement of phytohormones in postbloom fruit drop.
Hui-Qin Chen, Katherine L. Dekkers, Lihua Cao, Jacqueline K. Burns, L. W. Timmer and Kuang-Ren Chung
Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) of citrus is incited by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmonds and may result in young fruit drop and severe yield losses. Previous studies suggested that imbalance of growth regulators such as auxin, ethylene, and jasmonic acid (JA) plays an essential role in young fruit abscission. In this work, we determined the factors associated with fungal-induced fruit drop by testing compounds inhibitory to hormonal transport or biosynthesis. As assessed on sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) for 4 years, we found that many auxin transport and action inhibitors such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzolic acid (TIBA), 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methyl-propionic acid (clofibrate), or quercetin and JA biosynthesis inhibitors such as salicylic acid (SA) and aspirin (methyl-SA) applied 7 d after C. acutatum infection resulted in higher percentages of young fruit retention compared with the water controls. The commercial products ReZist and Actigard, widely used as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) agents, also improved fruit retention. Furthermore, application of gibberellic acid (GA3) on sweet orange, regardless of C. acutatum infection, significantly increased fruit retention. These commercial products may be very useful in managing this destructive disease of citrus in the field.