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- Author or Editor: L.H. Allen Jr. x
Midday reductions of stomatal conductance and carbon dioxide assimilation rates (Aco2) in Citrus are typically attributed to large leaf-to-air vapor-pressure differences or high atmospheric vapor-pressure deficits (VPD). This study investigated air temperature (Ta) and available soil water (ASW) level as corollary factors of atmospheric VPD that influence midday reduction of net gas exchange in citrus leaves. The influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 under conditions that inhibit net canopy Aco2 was also investigated. Net canopy Aco2 and evapotranspiration rates of Carrizo citrange [Poncirus trifoliata Raf × Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and Swingle citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf × C. paradisii Macf.) seedlings grown in outdoor controlled-environment growth chambers were measured under two levels of Ta with concomitant changes in VPD and two levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration, which were changed in steps over time. Cyclical depletion of ASW was allowed to occur at each set of Ta/VPD and CO2 combinations. Highest net canopy Ace, rates at ambient CO2 concentration (330 μmol·mol-1) were obtained at the low Ta/VPD level (29C/2.4 kPa) and ASW >50%. Diurnal canopy CO2 uptake rates decreased at the high Ta/VPD level (37C/3.6 kPa), and midday depression of canopy Aco2 was observed at ASW levels <50%. Net canopy Aco2 decreased at higher levels of ASW under the high Ta/VPD treatment than at the low Ta/VPD treatment. At the elevated CO2 concentration (840 μmol·mol-1) net canopy CO2 uptake rates were double those that occurred at ambient CO2 levels and they did not exhibit midday reduction. Our data indicate that, when soil water is not readily available, citrus seedlings are more sensitive to high levels of Ta and VPD which results in reduction of CO2 uptake. The inhibitory effects of elevated VPD and reduced ASW on citrus net Aco2 were lessened at the elevated atmospheric CO2 level.
Leaf chambers were placed on 6 leaves each of 3 trees of orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Valencia] budded on rough lemon [Citrus limon (Lush) Burm. f.] rootstock, of which one tree was healthy and one in an early stage and one in an advanced stage of citrus blight, a decline disease of unknown etiology. Carbon dioxide exchange rates (CER) and leaf transpiration were measured every 7.5 minutes, continuously over a 2-week period. No difference in average leaf CER was observed among the 3 trees, but the decrease in leaf area associated with blight was confirmed. Leaf area index appeared not to have decreased sufficiently, even in the advanced-blight tree, to reduce light interception and thereby to reduce overall tree CER significantly.
Leaf water potentials did not limit stomatal opening of Vitis labruscana Bailey cv. Concord during the summers of 1972 and 1973 in a New York vineyard. Midday leaf-water potentials ranged from −8 to −16 bars and were closely related to individual leaf irradiance. The diurnal variation of leaf, stem, and fruit cluster water potentials on a typical clear day were about 5, 11, and 6 bars, respectively. Water potential gradients at midday across the root, shoot, and petiole-leaf systems averaged about 10, 1 and 3 bars, respectively. The gradient across the root consistently increased throughout the day relative to plant transpiration rate. Minimum stomatal resistance on days after cold nights (less than 10°C) was 2.7 ± 1.1 s cm-1, while the mean resistance on all other days was 1.0 ± 0.5 s cm-1. Cool night temperatures inhibited stomatal opening and closing independently of leaf water potential.
One of the proposed alternative chemicals for methyl bromide is 1,3-D. The most common forms of 1,3-D products are cis- or trans-isomers of 1,3-D with the fungicidal agent, chloropicrin, containing such mixtures as 65% 1,3-D and 35% chloropicrin (C-35). Soil fumigants are commonly applied under a polyethylene film in Florida raised bed vegetable production. Much of the research regarding cropping system effects of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide has focused primarily on plant growth parameters, with little regard to the atmospheric fate of these chemicals. The objective of this research was to determine both the atmospheric emission of 1,3-D under different plastic film treatments and to evaluate effects of application rates of 1,3-D and C-35 on plant pests, growth, and yield of Sunex 9602 summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Results showed that use of a high barrier polyethylene film (or virtually impermeable film - VIF) greatly reduced fumigant emission compared to ground cover with conventional polyethylene films or uncovered soil. Summer squash seedling survival was a severe problem in several of the 1,3-D alone treatments where no fungicidal agent was added, whereas C-35 resulted in excellent disease control at both full and one-half of the recommended application rates for this chemical. Both 1,3-D and C-35 provided good plant stands and higher yields when applied at their recommended application rates. However, all squash yields were lower than typical squash production levels due to late planting and early winter frost kill. Chemical names used: 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D); trichloronitropropene (chloropicrin).
Methyl bromide (MeBr) is an important and effective soil fumigant commonly used to control weeds and soilborne pests. Because MeBr has been implicated as a contributor to the depletion of stratospheric ozone, it is scheduled for phaseout by 2005. This study examined nonchemical and chemical practices as alternatives to MeBr. Off-season flooding followed by a series of soil preplant chemical treatments [MeBr with 33% Pic; 1,3-D mixed with 17% (C-17) and 35% (C-35) Pic combined with Peb; and metam-Na combined with 1,3-D and Peb were evaluated on spring tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) production in northern Florida. Pest control and tomato and eggplant yields were not significantly different between the flooded and non-flooded control plots. The most effective alternatives to MeBr were 1,3-D and Pic mixtures (C-17 and C-35) combined with Peb. Tomato and eggplant yields for these chemicals were statistically equivalent to that of MeBr. Tomato, but not eggplant, yield and nematode control were poor with metam-Na combined with 1,3-D and Peb in comparison to the other fumigant combinations. Chemical names used: 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D); trichloronitromethane [chloropicrin (Pic)]; S-propyl butyl(ethyl)thiocarbamate [pebulate (Peb)]; sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate (metam-sodium (metam-Na)].