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  • Author or Editor: L.G. Wilson x
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Extension postharvest quality maintenance programs in North Carolina were significantly enhanced by engineering inputs and Exxon violation escrow funds. Equipment and storage designs and recommendations have provided tangible results for North Carolina horticultural crops producers and shippers, including “Cool and Ship,” a portable, pallet-size forced-air cooling system, thermal storage immersion hydrocooling systems, and the horizontal air flow sweetpotato curing and storage system. Impacts include: 30% to 50% blueberry and strawberry loss reductions using forced-air cooling; and 20% to 30% sweetpotato packout rate increases when cured and stored with the new system. Useful materials include a video on cooling options, a computer decision aid for precooling, a storage poster, and more than two dozen publications on Maintaining the Quality of North Carolina Fresh Produce.

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Containerized Gaillardia pulchella Foug. derived from seed of natural populations in east Texas (ET), northeast Florida (NEF), central west Florida (CWF), central east Florida (CEF), and southeast Florida (SEF) were transplanted in early April to field sites located in northwestern, northern central, and southeastern Florida. During the 22-week study, plants were irrigated only during the first 2 weeks after transplanting to aid establishment. Plant growth was assessed by calculating growth indices (GI, a gauge of plant size based on height and width) at first and second flowering peaks, and by recording shoot dry weight at first flowering peak. Growth index varied among ecotypes and sites but ecotype × site was nonsignificant. At 22 weeks, NEF and ET had GIs about 18% larger than CEF or SEF. Plants grew more at the two northern sites than in southeastern Florida, which was probably due to the loamy soils at the northern sites. Averaged over the entire study, visual ratings of vigor, flowering, and quality varied by ecotype; ecotype × site interactions were nonsignificant. All ecotypes except CEF exhibited equally high vigor, flowering, and quality. Plants in southeastern Florida had lower vigor and flowering ratings than those at the two northern sites. Survival varied by ecotype and site, and ecotype × site was significant. Within a site, survival of NEF, SEF, and ET was equally high (83% to 100%). Also, CWF had 100% survival at the two northern sites, yet no CWF plants survived past week 16 in southeastern Florida. There was no short-term home region advantage to necessitate using local G. pulchella ecotypes in residential or commercial landscapes. CEF and CWF performed poorly in southeastern Florida, which was probably related to excessive June rain.

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Abstract

Crosses and subsequent segregation between inbred lines of ‘National Pickling cucumber (Cucumis satirus L.) resistant to acute exposure to sulfur dioxide, and the sensitive ‘Chipper‘ cucumber indicated that resistance was dominant and may be controlled by a single gene.

Open Access

Conservation tillage using residue from a cover crop grown before potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production has been infrequently and inconclusively studied. The objectives of this study were to 1) conduct a field study to evaluate soil physical properties, and potato growth and yield, in conventional-tillage (CT), no-tillage (NT), and subsurface-tillage (SST) systems and 2) conduct a greenhouse study to evaluate the effect of soil bulk density (ρb) on potato growth and yield. Potatoes (`Atlantic') were planted into residue of sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench × S. sudanense (Piper) Staph] at two sites in eastern North Carolina—Plymouth into Portsmouth fine sandy loam and Lewiston into Norfolk sandy loam. Potatoes in the NT and SST system emerged more slowly than potatoesplanted conventionally. There were no differences in plant population or size by 8 weeks after planting at Plymouth, but plant population and size were less in NT and SST systems at Lewiston. Reducing tillage also affected soil compaction, increased soil moisture early in the season at both sites, and increased ρb at Lewiston. Yield of U.S. No. 1 potatoes planted in NT and SST systems were comparable to potatoes planted in a CT system at Plymouth, but were less than potatoes planted in a CT system at Lewiston. There were no differences in yield between potatoes planted with NT and SST. In the greenhouse study, ρb did not affect leaf area or tuber yield or tuber grade. Specific sites and soils may allow for comparable potato production with no or SST, but further research, conducted on different soil types would promote further understanding of the impacts of reducing tillage in potato production.

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Temperatures recorded by weather stations and within the canopy of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) crops were compared in fields near Davis, Calif., during Summer 1983 (60 days) and 1987 (50 days). For both years, the average maximum and minimum temperatures, daily temperature ranges, degree days per day, and total accumulated degree days were compared. In 1983, the mean maximum temperature at the weather station did not differ significantly from that in the canopy, but the mean minimum temperature at the weather station was significantly lower than that in the canopy. In 1987, the mean maximum temperature at the weather station was significantly higher than that in the canopy, but mean minimum temperatures did not differ significantly. Temperature ranges were significantly narrower for the weather station toward the end of the 1983 season, and significantly wider for the weather station at midseason 1987. Comparisons of degree days per day showed significant differences between means at the weather station and in the canopy in 1983, and among those at the weather station and the two degree day calculation methods used for temperatures recorded in the canopy. Total accumulated degree days based on temperature records at the weather station were lower than those in the canopy in 1983 but higher in 1987. In 1987, the single sine degree day calculation method overestimated degree days compared to the 2-hr triangulation method. The phenology of the tomato crop as predicted by weather station temperatures indicated that tomato maturation was underestimated in 1983 and overestimated in 1987. The rate of development for hypothetical populations of Heliothis zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) within the tomato crop was again underestimated in 1983 and overestimated in 1987, as based on temperature data of the weather station.

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Abstract

Water solutions of commercial formulations of growth regulators were pressure-injected into the trunks of topped American elm (Ulmus americana L.) trees in June to evaluate their ability to reduce sprout regrowth. Regrowth was significantly reduced by methyl 2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate (chlorflurenol), N-[4-methyl-3-[[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]amino] = phenyl]acetamide (fluoridamid), l,2-dihydro-3,6-pyridazine-dione (maleic hydrazide), succinic acid,2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA); α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxypenyl)-5-pyrimidine = methanol (ancymidol) and (2-chloroethyl)trimethyl-ammonium chloride (chlormequat) were ineffective. Some undesirable effects on the tree and foliage were observed. Maleic hydrazide (MH) and daminozide (SADH) were selected for additional field tests at 3 concentration levels on topped American elm and American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). Regrowth was significantly reduced and foliage condition was acceptable for the high concentration of SADH and the low concentration of MH. Successive measurements in both experiments showed that sprout regrowth was reduced by an amount equivalent to at least 1 year of growth during the first 2 seasons following treatment.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Beauregard’ sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.] was developed by the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station to combine resistance to diseases and insects of local importance with good horticultural and culinary characteristics. This cultivar, first designated L82-508, is named after Louisiana's renowned civil engineer and “Napo-lean in Grey,” Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard.

Open Access

Abstract

‘La Festival’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] was released to provide a yellow flesh cultivar with a good quality fruit requiring 400 to 500 hr chilling. ‘La Festival’ produces a heavy crop of medium to large freestone fruit that ripen about 25 June, or about 20 days before ‘Elberta’ in southern Louisinna

Open Access

Abstract

‘La Pecher’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] was released to provide a good quality yellow flesh cultivar with a 400 to 500 hr chilling requirement. ‘La Pecher’ produces a heavy crop of medium to large semifreestone fruit that ripen 39 days before ‘Elberta’ or about 6 June in southern Louisiana.

Open Access

Abstract

‘La White’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] was released to provide a 600-700 hr chilling requirement, low acid, white flesh cultivar adapted to conditions in southeastern Louisiana. ‘La White’ produces a heavy crop of medium to large semi-freestone fruit that ripen 27 days before ‘Elberta’ or about 18 June in southeastern Louisiana.

Open Access