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John L. Cisar and Karen E. Williams

Soil-water repellency is often a problem for turfgrass grown on sand soils. Wetting agents used to alleviate repellency often provide mixed results. We evaluated AquagroL and an experimental material (ACA 864) at 0, 7, 14, and 21ml/m2 applied monthly to tifgreen bermuda grown on a soil-water repellent Margate fine sand over 6 months. Alleviation of repellency was based upon water drop penetration time (WDPT). Wetting agents did not effect turf quality, cover, or discoloration. Wetting agents did not reduce repellency 1 month after initial application. At 2 months, ACA 864 at 21ml/m2 significantly reduced WDPT. With repeat applications, lower rates of ACA 864 provided reductions in WDPT similar to the highest rate of ACA 864, suggesting an additive effect over time. There was a decline in WDPT for all wetting agent treatments, except the control, over time. Repellency decreased with soil depth, and repeat wetting agent application reduced WDPT at lesser depth.

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L.E. Williams and F.J. Araujo

A study was conducted to compare three measurements of determining water status of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in the field. Predawn leaf water potential (ΨPD), midday leaf water potential (Ψl), and midday stem water potential (Ψstem) were measured on `Chardonnay' and `Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines grown in Napa Valley, California late in the 1999 growing season. Both cultivars had been irrigated weekly at various fractions (0, 0.5, and 1.0 for `Chardonnay' and 0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.5 for `Cabernet') of estimated vineyard evapotranspiration (ETc) from approximately anthesis up to the dates of measurements. Predawn water potential measurements were taken beginning at 0330 hr and completed before sunrise. Midday Ψl and Ψstem measurements were taken only between 1230 and 1330 hr. In addition, net CO2 assimilation rates (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapor (gs) were also measured at midday. Soil water content (SWC) was measured in the `Chardonnay' vineyard using a neutron probe. Values obtained for ΨPD, Ψl, and Ψstem in this study ranged from about -0.05 to -0.8, -0.7 to -1.8, and -0.5 to -1.6 MPa, respectively. All three measurements of vine water status were highly correlated with one another. Linear regression analysis of Ψl and Ψstem versus ΨPD resulted in r 2 values of 0.88 and 0.85, respectively. A similar analysis of Ψl as a function of Ψstem resulted in an r2 of 0.92. In the `Chardonnay' vineyard, all three methods of estimating vine water status were significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with SWC and applied amounts of water. Lastly, ΨPD, Ψl, and Ψstem were all linearly correlated with measurements of A and gs at midday. Under the conditions of this study, ΨPD, Ψl, and Ψstem represent equally viable methods of assessing the water status of these grapevines. They were all correlated similarly with the amount of water in the soil profile and leaf gas exchange as well as with one another.

Open access

L. E. Williams and R. J. Smith


The relationship between net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and nitrogen (N) content during leaf senescence was determined on field grown Vitis vinifera L. ‘Thompson Seedless’ leaves. Measurements commenced subsequent to fruit harvest and were made at weekly intervals until leaf fall. Maximum A was greater than 2.0 nmoles CO2 cm-2s-1 when leaf N content was greater than 3.0%. There was a linear relationship between A and percent N content regardless of whether A was expressed on an area or dry weight basis. However, the correlation between A on a dry weight basis and percent leaf N was greater than that between A on an area basis and percent leaf N. The percent N content and net CO2 assimilation rate decreased as weight per unit leaf area (W) increased. There was no effect on leaf N content on stomatal conductance (gs) when N content was greater than 2%. The results suggest that leaf N content could be used an as indicator of a grapevine's leaf photosynthetic capacity subsequent to fruit harvest.

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John L. Cisar, George H. Snyder, and Karen E. Williams

For only the second time, the United States will host The International Turfgrass Society's (ITS) International Turfgrass Research Conference (ITRC). The VII ITRC will be held July 18-24, 1993 at The Breakers in Palm Beach, FL. Since its inception, the ITS has been devoted to addressing problems that effect turfgrass and improving the standards of turfgrass science through international communication. The Conference will offer two symposia entitled “Pesticide and Nutrient Fate in Turfgrass Systems” and “Quantification of Surface Characteristics of Sports Fields”. Additionally plenary and volunteered oral and poster presentations on all topics of turfgrass science and related horticultural landscape management tours of the local horticultural industries will be offered. Volunteered papers will be published in a proceedings as either original research papers or as technical papers. Papers submitted as original research will undergo refereed peer review prior to acceptance. See poster for further details or contact authors at above address (phone: 305-475-8990).

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Karen E. Williams, John L. Cisar, and George H. Snyder

Current interest in the fate of agrochemicals applied to turf is encouraging many turf scientists to contemplate renovation of existing field plots for soil-water monitoring studies. Ceramic cup samplers are used for these studies and result in little soil profile disturbance. However, a limitation to using this tool is frequent sampler failure caused by frequent system air leaks. Also, conventional installation and sampling require that samplers be accessible from above the soil line. This imposes a constraint on turf maintenance and increases traffic and wear to turf plots. Herein, an inexpensive offsite soil-water sampling method using permanently installed ceramic cup samplers that allows for routine turf maintenance without system failure is described. Thirty-six separately irrigated 4 m2 plots each with an installed sampler provided daily data over 1988-1989, from which the effects of a range of irrigation, N, K, and propoxur treatments on soil-water concentrations were evaluated. These data, plus calculated percolation provided an estimate of groundwater loading.

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W.A. Retzlaff, L.E. Williams, and T.M. DeJong

Nursery stock of plum (Prunus salicina Lindel., `Casselman') was planted 1 Apr. 1988 in an experimental orchard at the Kearney Agricultural Center, Univ. of California, near Fresno. The trees were enclosed in open-top fumigation chambers on 1 May 1989 and exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal-filtered air, ambient air, and ambient air + ozone) from 8 May to 15 Nov. 1989 and from 9 Apr. to 9 Nov. 1990. Trees grown outside of chambers were used to assess chamber effects on tree performance. The mean 12-hour (0800-2000 hr Pacific Daylight Time) ozone partial pressures during the 2-year experimental period in the charcoal-filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments were 0.044, 0.059, 0.111, and 0.064 μPa·Pa-1 in 1989 and 0.038, 0.050, 0.090, and 0.050 pPa·Pa-1 in 1990, respectively. Leaf net CO2 assimilation rate of `Casselman' plum decreased with increasing atmospheric ozone partial pressure from the charcoal-filtered to ambient + ozone treatment. There was no difference in plum leaf net CO2 assimilation rate between the ambient chamber and nonchamber plots. Trees in the ambient + ozone treatment had greater leaf fall earlier in the growing season than those of the other treatments. Cross-sectional area growth of the trunk decreased with increasing atmospheric ozone partial pressures from the charcoal-filtered to ambient + ozone treatment. Yield of plum trees in 1990 was 8.8, 6.3, 5.5, and 5.5 kg/tree in the charcoal-filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments, respectively. Average fruit weight (grams/fruit) was not affected by atmospheric ozone partial pressure. Fruit count per tree decreased as atmospheric ozone partial pressure increased from the charcoal-filtered to ambient + ozone treatment. Decreases in leaf gas exchange and loss of leaf surface area were probable contributors to decreases in trunk cross-sectional area growth and yield of young `Casselman' plum trees during orchard establishment.

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N.K. Dokoozlian, L.E. Williams, and R.A. Neja

An experiment was conducted to examine the interaction between chilling exposure (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 hours at 3C) and hydrogen cyanamide (H2CN2) concentration [0%, 1.25%, and 2.50% (v/v)] on the budbreak of dormant grape buds (Vitis vinifera L. `Perlette') collected in late fall before the onset of temperatures ≤13C. Budbreak at 22C was most rapid for cuttings exposed to 800 chill hours and least rapid for cuttings that received no chilling. Budbreak of cuttings receiving 50 to 200 hours of chilling was similar and lagged behind that of cuttings exposed to 400 or 800 hours. Maximum observed budbreak improved with increased chilling exposure. Hydrogen cyanamide hastened the growth of all chilling treatments and increased the percent budbreak of cuttings receiving ≤400 chill hours. When cuttings were not treated with H2CN2, the number of days required for 50% budbreak declined sharply as chilling exposure increased from 0 to 400 hours. In contrast, this interval was reduced only slightly as chilling increased from 400 to 800 hours. Hydrogen cyanamide-treated buds exhibited a more gradual decline in the number of days required for 50% budbreak with increased chilling exposure. In this study, the physiological efficacy and economic benefits of H2CN2 applications diminished with increased chilling exposure.

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M. Padgett-Johnson, L.E. Williams, and M.A. Walker

A comparison was made among 16 native North American Vitis species and Vitis vinifera L. ('Carignane') grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California with or without irrigation over 2 years. Predawn water potential (ΨPD), predawn leaf osmotic potential (Ψπ), midday leaf (Ψl), and stem water potential (Ψstem), stomatal conductance (gs), net CO2 assimilation rate (A), and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) were measured on five dates during the growing season the first year of the study and pruning weights were evaluated both years. Net gas exchange and water potential components taken on the last measurement date in 1992 and pruning weights of the nonirrigated species were less (or more negative for Ψ components) than those of the irrigated vines. The 17 Vitis species were ranked according to their relative drought tolerance based upon their performance without irrigation and when compared to their irrigated cohort. The Vitis species considered most drought tolerant were V. californica, V. champinii, V. doaniana, V. longii, V. girdiana, and V. arizonica. Those six species generally had high values of A, gs, and pruning weights and more favorable vine water status at the end of the study than the other species when grown without irrigation. The drought-induced reductions in the measured parameters also were less for those species when compared to their irrigated cohorts. The least drought tolerant species were, V. berlandieri, V. cinerea, V. lincecumii, V. riparia, and V. solonis. The drought-tolerant rankings were generally associated with the species' native habitat and probable soil water availability.

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Larry E. Williams, Rudy A. Neja, Jewell L. Meyer, Lori A. Yates, and Eddie L. Walker

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D.A Grantz, W.A. Retzlaff, L.E. Williams, and T.M. DeJong

Models indicate that ozone inhibits carbon assimilation largely in the upper canopy, due to light and ozone gradients. We document yield reductions and ozone gradients in Casselman plum in open-top ozone fumigation chambers. Ambient air (12 hr mean ozone = 0.050 ppm), charcoal filtered air (0.034 ppm) and ambient air plus added ozone (0.094 ppm) were circulated in the chambers. Additional trees grew outside the chambers (0.058 ppm). Outside the chambers large vertical and horizontal gradients in ozone within the canopy were documented, but these were absent in the chambers. Ozone decreased leaf photosynthesis by 31% and 58%, and fruit yield by 20% and 66%, in the ambient and ozone enriched relative to filtered chambers. Despite altered gradients, yield and photosynthesis of exposed leaves were similar inside and outside the chambers in ambient air. Compensatory changes in leaf function may be involved.