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- Author or Editor: L.D. Saunders x
Four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties were grown under four season-long sprinkler irrigation treatments in three successive years (1992-94) on silt loam soil in eastern Oregon. The check treatment was irrigated when soil water potential (SWP) at the 0.2-m depth reached -60 J·kg-1 and received at most the accumulated evapotranspiration (Etc) to avoid exceeding the water-holding capacity of the top 0.3 m of soil. The three deficit irrigation treatments were irrigated when SWP at the 0.2-m depth reached -80 J·kg-1 and had the following percent of the accumulated Etc applied at each irrigation: 1) 100%, 2) 70%, and 3) 70% during tuber bulking with 50% thereafter. Based on regression of applied water over 3 years, potatoes lost both total and U.S. No. 1 yields when irrigations were reduced. Based on regression on applied water, when irrigation was reduced gross revenues declined more than production costs, resulting in a reduction in profits. Leaching potential, as determined by the SWP treatments, was low for all treatments. The results of the study suggest that deficit irrigation of potatoes in the Treasure Valley of Oregon would not be a viable management tool, because the small financial benefits would not offset the high risks of reduced yields and profits from the reduced water applications.
Onion (Allium cepa L., `Great Scott') was grown on silt loam soils and submitted to four irrigation thresholds (-25, -50, -75, and -100 kPa) in 1992 and six irrigation thresholds (-12.5, -25, -37.5, -50, -75, and -100 kPa) in 1993 and 1994. Irrigation thresholds (soil water potential measured at 0.2-m depth) were used as criteria to initiate furrow irrigations. Onions were evaluated for yield and grade after 70 days of storage. In 1992 and 1994, total yield, marketable yield, and profit increased with increasing irrigation threshold. In 1993, total yield increased with increasing irrigation threshold, but marketable yield and profit were maximized by a calculated threshold of -27 kPa due to a substantial increase of decomposition during storage with increasing threshold.
`Umatilla Russet' and `Russet Legend', two newly released potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars were compared with four established cultivars (`Russet Burbank', `Shepody', `Frontier Russet', and `Ranger Russet'). Potatoes were grown under four, season-long, sprinkler irrigation treatments in three successive years (1992-94) on silt loam soil in eastern Oregon. At each irrigation, the full irrigation treatment received up to the accumulated evapotranspiration (ETc) since the last irrigation. Three deficit irrigation treatments had progressively less water. The new cultivars `Umatilla Russet' and `Russet Legend' performed as well as or better than the other cultivars in the full irrigation treatment, with `Umatilla Russet' showing a higher yield potential at the higher water application rates than `Russet Legend'. All cultivars produced more U.S. No. 1 tubers than `Russet Burbank', except in 1993, an unusually cool and wet year. `Russet Legend' was the only cultivar showing a tolerance to deficit irrigation. In two out of the three years, `Russet Legend' was as productive of U.S. No. 1 yield over most of the range of applied water as `Shepody', `Frontier Russet', and `Ranger Russet' were at the higher end of the applied water range. Chemical names used: 0,0-diethyl S-[(ethylthio) methyl] phosphorodithioate (phorate); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); and 2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1methyl-ethyl) acetamide (metolachlor).
Onion (Allium cepa var. cepa L.) is extensively grown under furrow irrigation in the western United States. Wheel compaction of furrows increases water runoff and erosion, and can lead to poor lateral water movement and reduced yields. We studied the effects of 560 to 800 lb/acre (630 to 900 kg·ha-1) wheat straw mechanically applied to the bottom of irrigation furrows on yield and bulb size of sweet Spanish onions in commercial onion fields in 1988, 1990, and 1991, and at an experiment station in 1991 and 1995. Furrows in commercial fields were either compacted with tractor wheels or not. In the commercial fields, straw application increased onion yield in plots with compacted furrows in 1988 and in all plots (with or without compacted furrows) in 1990. At the experiment station, straw mulch increased onion yield 64% in 1991, and 74% in 1995. Straw application primarily increased yields of jumbo (3 to 4 inches; 76 to 102 mm) and colossal (>4 inches; 10 cm) onions, whereas there was no effect on medium (2.25 to 3 inches; 57 to 76 mm) onions. We attributed yield improvements to decreased water runoff and increased lateral water movement and soil moisture.
Native grass, forb, and shrub seed is needed to restore rangelands of the U.S. Intermountain West. Fernleaf biscuitroot [Lomatium dissectum (Nutt.) Mathias & Constance] is a desirable component of rangelands. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity and quality of seed needed for rangeland restoration and reclamation efforts. Fernleaf biscuitroot has been used for hundreds if not thousands of years in the western United States as a source of food and medicine. Knowledge about fernleaf biscuitroot is confined to ethnobotanical reports, evaluation of some of its chemical constituents, and its role in rangelands. Products derived from fernleaf biscuitroot are sourced from wild plant populations. Little is known about fernleaf biscuitroot cultivation or its seed production. Variations in spring rainfall and soil moisture result in highly unpredictable water stress at flowering, seed set, and seed development of fernleaf biscuitroot. Water stress is known to compromise seed yield and quality for other seed crops. Irrigation trials were conducted at the Oregon State University Malheur Experiment Station at Ontario, OR, a location within the natural environmental range of fernleaf biscuitroot. It was anticipated that supplemental irrigation would be required to produce a seed crop in all years. Fernleaf biscuitroot was established through mechanical planting and cultivation on 26 Oct. 2005 in a randomized complete block design with four replicates; plot size was 9.1 m × 3.04 m wide. Irrigation treatments were 0 mm, 100 mm, and 200 mm/year applied in four equal treatments 2 weeks apart, timed to begin with flowering and continue through seed formation. First flowering occurred in the third year after planting. Seed production increased from the fourth through the sixth year. Optimal irrigation for seed production was calculated as 140 mm/year.