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  • Author or Editor: L. J. Edgerton x
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Abstract

A horticulturist assigned this topic 30 years ago would start with a brief review of the nature of the abscission zone in the ripening apple fruit, and then spend the remainder of the time telling about research and experience on ways to delay the abscission process. The principal concern of that era was the loss frequently experienced by growers from preharvest drop of ripening fruits of ‘McIntosh’, ‘Delicious’ and several other cultivars. Anatomical studies of the apple pedicel and abscission zone by MacDaniels (18) contributed to an understanding of the abscission process, and orchard studies on nutrition and production led to practices by which growers could reduce their losses during the harvesting period. Then the research by Gardner et al. (13) with growth regulators paved the way for the effective control of harvest drop through the foliar application of a spray solution containing an auxin such as a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Many other growth regulators have been added to the list and are being used in special situations or for specific cultivars. These include 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid (fenoprop) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and the growth retardant, succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH).

Open Access
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Abstract

Fruit retention on several cultivars of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) was reduced when (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid (ethephon) at 37.5 to 150 ppm was applied during fruit stage I and the beginning of stage II. Leaf yellowing and early drop as well as gummosis of branches and fruits frequently occurred as side effects. Simultaneous application of gibberellic acid (GA3) at 50 to 100 ppm significantly reduced or eliminated the undesirable side effects of ethephon without altering the thinning response.

Open Access

Abstract

A 2-spray treatment of Apasil, a formulation containing silicon dioxide, applied at petal fall and at petal fall + 7 to 10 days reduced russeting 20 to 30% in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). The application of gibberellins 4+7 (GA4+7) at 25 to 50 ppm also reduced russet in these trials. The application of GA4+7 at 25 ppm with silicon dioxide formulation improved control over that obtained with either material alone. The addition of chlorothaonil as a surfactant with the combination provided additional benefit.

Open Access

Abstract

2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethrel) was applied alone and in combination with NAA or 2,4,5-TP on apple cultivars which had previously been treated with succinic acid 2,2-dimethyl hydrazide (Alar). On ‘McIntosh,’ Ethrel applied 1 to 2 weeks before harvest overcame the abscission delay induced by the earlier Alar application, hastened red color development and slightly diminished the increased firmness imparted by Alar. The addition of NAA to the Ethrel treatment counteracted the abscission stimulation but did not alter the other effects of Ethrel associated with its release of C2H4. Thus, Alar-treated fruits reached maturity earlier under the influence of Ethrel, and with the addition of NAA or 2,4,5-TP a satisfactory retention force was maintained until harvest. ‘McIntosh’ receiving these combinations were of comparable or better quality in comparison with control fruits or fruits treated with Alar alone after storage in CA and in 32°F air.

Open Access

Abstract

Uniform, actively growing apple seedlings, 10-15 cm high, were sprayed with 1000 ppm succinamic acid 2-2 dimethyl hydrazide (Alar). The apical portion of treated and control seedlings was collected at the following intervals after treatment: 3, 27 hr; 3, 6, 8, 14 days; 5 weeks. Sections through the apex were prepared, stained and examined microscopically for mitotic figures. As compared with controls, the frequency of mitotic figures in the stem apex of treated plants progressively decreased through 3 days, thereafter the number of figures increased to 69% of that in untreated plants on the 14th day. In the rib meristem frequency of mitosis declined slightly at 3 hr, then progressively until the 3rd day, after which the number of figures increased progressively to the 14th day when it was 28% of that in untreated plants. Only a temporary decrease in mitotic activity occurred in young leaf primordia during the first 6 days. Five weeks old treated seedlings were examined for histological abnormalities associated with extreme shortening of internodes.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Fruit maturity induced by (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) and sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) was enhanced by tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil). Chlorothalonil alone had no effect on any of the fruit maturity parameters measured, but in combination with ethephon, enhanced ripening in apple (color development, soluble solids, softening, and loosening) and loosening of sour cherries. Apple fruit ethylene production was advanced by this combination. The addition of chlorothalonil to ethephon sprays to loosen sour cherries permitted the use of lower ethephon concentration and eliminated gummosis in branches caused by standard rates of ethephon.

Open Access

Abstract

Bud explants of apple (Malus domestica Bork.) grown aseptically in vitro have been shown to respond to several chemicals in a manner similar to intact trees treated with the same chemicals, except that much lower concentrations are required. The method should be useful as a screening test for chemicals which have shoot-regulatory properties.

Open Access

Abstract

The new growth regulator 2-chloroethanephosphonic acid (Ethrel) 3 was applied to apple and peach branches or young trees at several stages of development from prebloom to harvest. Application at 1000 to 2000 ppm during the prebloom to early postbloom stages on several apple cultivars virtually eliminated all fruit with little or no phytotoxicity. Peach foliage and shoots were more sensitive to the chemical. Vegetative growth was checked and flower bud formation promoted in some cases. From one week after bloom to 4 weeks after bloom, fruit set could be reduced but it was not possible to eliminate the fruit in all cases without phytotoxicity. Application from then until a few weeks before maturity had little effect on abscission. Fruit abscission at maturity was promoted with application of Ethrel.

Open Access

Abstract

On current season’s growth of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, cv. Montmorency) injury induced by (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) occurred at and below the nodes in tissues adjacent to the 3 leaf traces supplying each leaf. In the secondary xylem close to the cambium, separation and breakdown of cell walls resulted in the formation of gum cavities; injury occurred also in cortical tissues adjacent to the leaf traces. In older portions of the branch more severe injury occurred where large gum cavities formed in the outer secondary xylem and in cortical tissues. Superficial swelling, cell proliferation and surface cracks occurred on the branches near the nodes accompanied by exudations of gum. Injury and cell wall dissolution may be related to cellulase activity stimulated by ethylene released from the break down of ethephon within the tissues.

Open Access

Abstract

No one will deny that there are problems with the traditional methods of publishing the results of scientific research, and, in fact of all forms of printed communication. These concerns and problems cover a wide range of issues from the increasing cost of publishing a paper in many journals, including our own, to the sheer mass of accumulating journals, periodicals and reference books on our library shelves. The present membership fees have probably placed a burden on some individuals, and the page charges, whether paid by the individual member or through his department’s budget have been a matter of concern. It could be argued that the high page charges should induce or encourage authors to be more concise in their writing. Experience, however, indicates that this does not necessarily follow.

Open Access