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  • Author or Editor: L. Eric Hinesley x
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Abstract

Three-year-old (3-0) Fraser fir seedlings were transplanted into an irrigated transplant bed at 2-week intervals between 1 Aug. and 15 Oct. and once the following spring prior to budbreak. Following one growing season in the transplant bed, seedlings established the previous August and early September had the greatest dry weight, stem diameter, and shoot elongation.

Open Access

Abstract

Two-year-old (2-0) Fraser Fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] seedlings were planted in a transplant bed and grown for 2 years under shade intensities of 0%, 30%, 51%, and 76%. Shade intensity of 30% had little effect on growth, but growth decreased significantly when shade intensity was increased from 51% to 76%. Plants grown in full sunlight or 30% shade were 2- to 2-times heavier and 75% larger in diameter than those grown under 76% shade. The effect of shade was similar for roots and shoots.

Open Access

Abstract

Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] Christmas trees were cut on 30 Nov. and air-dried for periods of 2, 5, 9, 13, 19, 22, 27 and 33 days, followed by recutting the butt ends and placing in water. Trees dried 9 days or less quickly rehydrated and reached twig moisture contents considerably higher than initial values. The rate and extent of rehydration declined with further drying; trees dried longer than 27 days continued to dry after being returned to water. Needle loss was not related to duration of drying or the quantity of water taken up after trees were returned to water. Xylem pressure potential was closely related to twig moisture content and seemed to be a rapid method of assessing freshness. The critical twig moisture content of Fraser fir, i.e., the moisture content below which a tree will not rehydrate when placed in water, was about 70% to 75%, which corresponded to pressure potentials of -40 to -45 bars.

Open Access

Abstract

Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginia L.) Christmas trees were cut in early December, brought indoors, and dried to different xylem pressure potentials (Ψ) before the stems were recut and placed in water. Redcedar trees dried rapidly, but quickly rehydrated even at Ψ as low as –6.5 to –7.0 MPa. Trees displayed negligible foliage loss while drying, but those dried to Ψ ≤ –4.9 MPa were predisposed to heavy defoliation following rehydration. There was a linear relationship between Ψ and twig moisture content (dry-weight basis).

Open Access

Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] branches were held at 5C for 4 to 6 weeks in the following atmospheres: 1% or 3% in nitrogen; 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%, or 50% CO2 in air; or air only. Experiments were conducted in two. years during the fall, winter, and early spring. In general, CO2 ≥ 5% accelerated needle loss. There was considerable tree-to-tree variation in tolerance to elevated CO2. Oxygen at 1% killed branches, and 3% O2 showed no benefit compared to air. The initial dark respiration rate at 21C was about four times higher than at SC. Respiration decreased for ≈ 10 days and stabilized at 14% to 20% of the initial values. Respiration increased exponentially with increasing temperature between 5 and 27C. Short-term controlled or modified atmosphere storage would probably not be useful in improving the postharvest handling of Fraser fir.

Free access

Postharvest drying of Leyland cypress [× Cupressocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. & Dallim.)] branches was intermediate between eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) and Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] in two laboratory experiments. Leyland cypress rehydrated without adverse effect until xylem pressure potential reached –4.0 to –5.0 MPa (shoot moisture content = 60% to 65%). For branches continuously maintained in water, Fraser fir and Leyland cypress kept equally well over 4 weeks of display, but Leyland cypress lasted longer than Fraser fir over 8 weeks. Postharvest keeping quality of Leyland cypress and Fraser fir was better than that of eastern red cedar.

Free access

Dormant branches of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] Christmas trees were subjected to single doses of gamma radiation at levels ranging from 0 to 5.0 kGy (0 to 500 kRad). Significant needle loss resulted at doses ≥0.10 kGy and increased with radiation intensity. Irradiation discolored foliage and accelerated drying. Irradiation does not appear to be a viable way to meet insect quarantine requirements on cut Fraser fir Christmas trees.

Free access

Stem cuttings of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were collected in early June 1995, divided into two parts (distal tip and proximal segment), and rooted for 12 weeks in shaded containers outdoors. Total rooting was near 80%. Mist intervals of 8 and 15 min yielded the best rooting percentages and the least dieback and injury. Two rooting media were tested, with similar results. Rooting was slightly higher in Spencer-Lemaire Rootrainers (Hillson size), compared to RoPak Multi-pots (#45). More than 90% of the tips rooted, even without IBA treatment. Auxin improved rooting of stem segments, but the difference between IBA at 1.5 and 3.0 g·L-1 was small. Yield of cuttings suitable for transplanting or potting was 80% for tips, 58% for segments. Dividing stem cuttings into two or more parts allows multiplication of rooted propagules from a collection. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

Free access

Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] Christmas trees were basal pruned (branches were removed from the lower 15 to 25 cm of the stem, i.e., handle) at heights ranging from 0.6 to 0.9 m up to 1.5 to 1.8 m tall, and were harvested 2 to 4 years later. Basal pruning reduced cutting time ≈25%, and baling time ≈10%. Commercial height and stem diameter were unaffected, but the average harvest weight of pruned trees 2.1 to 2.4 m tall (2 to 4 years after basal pruning) was reduced ≈1.4 kg.

Free access

Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) seedlings were grown in 1986 through 1988 in pine bark container media with various levels of dolomitic limestone and micronutrients. Supplemental micronutrients reduced shoot growth, especially in the absence of limestone, and root growth was greatest when neither limestone nor micronutrients were added. Including at least 3.0 kg limestone/m3 in the medium was beneficial, not only as a source of nutrients, but also as a buffer against potentially toxic effects of excess micronutrients.

Free access