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  • Author or Editor: L. D. Ray x
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Abstract

Succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide) applied at 1800 ppm to 10-year-old ‘Babygold-5’ and ‘Babygold-8’ peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) at pit hardening advanced fruit maturity and increased tolerance of low soluble solids fruit by improving flesh color. Fruit softening, the disappearance of flesh chlorophyll, and reductions in puree viscosity were the primary benefits obtained from the application of daminozide. Daminozide advanced maturation generally, rather than concentrating the fruit into a more uniform maturity class. Flesh color and acidity were highly correlated with loss of fruit firmness of both control and daminozide-treated fruit, but daminozide treated fruit improved in flesh color more rapidly than control fruit as firmness decreased. Acidity remained consistently higher for treated fruit at all firmness levels. The mechanism by which daminozide advanced maturity did not appear to be active during postharvest holding of these clingstone cultivars. Further ripening as a result of postharvest storage of both treated and control fruit occurred at about the same rate during a 2, 4 or 6 day period at 18°C.

Open Access

“Effects of selected herbicides on sod tensile strength and rooting of mature and immature turf of common centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro.) Hack] were studied in field experiments. Herbicides evaluated were atrazine, atrazine + tridiphane, bensulide, DCPA, DPX-6316, imazapyr, imazaquin, napropamide, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, sethoxydim, simazine, and sulfometuron. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatment (WAT), sod tensile strength was determined, and root length and number were measured 7 to 10 days later. In 1986 sod tensile strength was not affected, but in 1987 the tensile strength of the immature turf was reduced at 8 WAT by bensulide and imazapyr. Rooting was suppressed most by benstdide, imazapyr, napropamide, and sulfometuron at most rates and dates tested. By 8 WAT, root length, root number, and tensile strength of herbicide-treated centipedegrass sod did not differ from that of the untreated sod except for those plots treated with bensulide or imazapyr. Chemical names used: 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N' -(1-methylethyl) -1,3,5-triazine-2,4 -diamine (atrazine); 2-(3,5-dichlorophenyl) -2-(2,2,2-trichloroethyl) oxirane (tridiphane); O,O -bis(l-methylethyl)S-[2-[(phenylsulfonyl) amino] ethyl] phosphorodithioate (bensulide); dimethyl 2,3,5,6 -tetrachloro-1,4 -benzenedicarboxylate (DCPA); methyl 3-[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylaminocarbonyl]aminosulfonyl]-2-thiophenecarboWlate (DPX-6316); (&)-2-[4,5 -dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl] -3-pyridinecarbolic acid (imazapyr); 2-[4,5-dihydro-4 -methyl-4 -(1-methylethyl) -5-oxo-W-imidazol-2-yl]-3 -quinolinecarboxylic acid (imazaquin); N,N-diethyl-2-(1-naphthalenyloxy)propanamide (napropamide); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5 -(1-methylethoxy) phenyl]-5-(l,l-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4 -oxadiazol-2-(3H) -one (oxadiazon); N-(1 -ethylpropyl)-3, 4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); .2-[1-(ethoxyimino) butyl]-5-[2-(ethylthio) propyl]-3-hydroxy-2 -cyclohexen-1-one (sethoxydim); 6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2)4-diamine (simazine); 2-[[[[(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl)amino]carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl] benzoic acid (sulfometuron).

Free access

Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. Christmas trees were fertilized for 5 years with four levels of N (0, 56, 113, or 170 kg·ha–1 per year) in spring, fall, or equally split between spring and fall. Nitrogen did not affect leader length, number of leaders, or bud frequency on the upper (distal) portion of the leader. Nitrogen increased bud frequency on the lower (proximal) 20 cm of the leader in only 1 of 3 years of measurement. All application schedules increased the number of apical buds on branches, whereas the number of lateral buds was increased only by spring applications. Nitrogen increased tree fresh weight and retail value as well as weight, length, and surface area of needles. Foliar N concentrations in the fall varied with fertilization schedule, and were higher in November than in October.

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Abstract. Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. Christmas trees were fertilized for 5 years with four levels of N (0, 56, 113, or 170 kg·ha-1 per year) in spring, fall, or equally split between spring and fall. Nitrogen did not affect leader length, number of leaders, or bud frequency on the upper (distal) portion of the leader. Nitrogen increased bud frequency on the lower (proximal) 20 cm of the leader in only 1 of 3 years of measurement. All application schedules increased the number of apical buds on branches, whereas the number of lateral buds was increased only by spring applications. Nitrogen increased tree fresh weight and retail value as well as weight, length, and surface area of needles. Foliar N concentrations in the fall varied with fertilization schedule, and were higher in November than in October.

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The effects of two winter cover crops, rye and crimson clover, on bell pepper yield were studied. Cover crops were planted in fall and incorporated into the soil prior to bell pepper planting. Both cover crops increased the marketable number and weight of bell peppers, and reduced the cull number of bell peppers compared to fallow (control) treatment. Delaying the harvest increased the marketable yield in both cover crops. Since there was no difference in bell pepper yield between two cover crops, both cover crops can be used effectively for bell pepper production. Use of cover crops may reduce the production costs and harmful effects on the environment by reducing chemical dependency, and increase the crop yield.

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