Seedlings of Olneya tesota A. Gray (desert ironwood) were grown in 12-L containers filled with a peatmoss and pumice substrate (1:1 v/v) for 3 months under simulated summer or winter Sonoran Desert conditions in a walk-in growth chamber. Growth room irradiance (550 mmol•m-2•s-1) was provided with an even mixture of mercury vapor and high-pressure sodium high-intensity discharge lamps. Growth room air temperature and relative humidity were ramped hourly to approximate typical summer or winter weather conditions based on mean seasonal climatological data for Phoenix, Ariz. For simulated summer conditions, maximum/minimum air temperature range was 40/28 °C and maximum/minimum relative humidity range was 25%/12%. Photoperiod was 16 h. For simulated winter conditions, maximum/minimum air temperature and relative humidity were 20/5 °C and 80%/35%, respectively. Photoperiod was 10 h. After 2 months, desert ironwood root systems were cleaned of substrate by floatation in a water bath, pruned to a length of 15 cm, repotted, and then grown for an additional month under the same conditions. Only 41% of desert ironwood survived root pruning under summer conditions compared with a 100% survival rate under winter conditions. For surviving desert ironwood, shoot and root extension growth was significantly greater under summer conditions.
Chris A. Martin and L. Brooke McDowell
L. Brooke McDowell and Chris A. Martin
Effects of landscape design and land use history on gas exchange parameters were evaluated for woody plants in a factorial site matrix of formerly desert or agricultural land uses and xeric or mesic residential landscape designs within the metropolitan area of Phoenix, Ariz. Remnant Sonoran Desert sites and an alfalfa agricultural field functioned as controls. Residential landscapes and the alfalfa field were irrigated regularly. Monthly instantaneous measurements of maximum leaf and stem carbon assimilation (A), conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) were made within three replicates of each site type during 1998 and 1999. Measurements were repeated monthly on three woody plant life forms: trees, shrubs, and ground covers. Assimilation fluxes were not related to former land use, but were lower for plants in xeric compared with those in mesic landscapes. Transpiration fluxes were higher for plants in formerly agricultural sites than in formerly desert sites, and were lower in xeric than in mesic landscape design. Compared with plants in residential landscapes, A and E fluxes were generally higher for plants in the agricultural control sites and were lower for plants at the desert control sites. Plant instantaneous transpiration efficiency (ITE = A/E) was higher in formerly agricultural sites than in formerly desert sites but was not affected by landscape design. Patterns of A, gs, and shoot temperature at irrigated sites suggest that maximum plant carbon assimilation was not limited by shoot conductance but was more responsive to shoot temperature. Similarities in patterns of ITE between plants in the different landscape design types suggest that xeric and mesic landscape plants do not differ in terms of water use efficiency.
Cathleen A. Peterson, L. Brooke McDowell, and Chris A. Martin
Heightened awareness of ecological concerns have prompted many municipalities to promote water conservation through landscape design. In central Arizona, urban residential landscapes containing desert-adapted plant species are termed xeriscapes, while those containing temperate or tropical species and turf are termed mesoscapes. Research was conducted to ascertain landscape plant species diversity, tree, shrub, and ground cover frequency; landscape canopy area coverage; and monthly irrigation application volumes for xeric and mesic urban residential landscapes. The residential urban landscapes were located in Tempe and Phoenix, Ariz., and all were installed initially between 1985 and 1995. Although species composition of xeric and mesic landscapes was generally dissimilar, both landscape types had comparable species diversity. Mesoscapes had significantly more trees and shrubs and about 2.3 times more canopy area coverage per landscaped area than xeriscapes. Monthly irrigation application volumes per landscaped surface area were higher for xeriscapes. Even though human preference for xeric landscape plants may be ecological in principle, use of desert-adapted species in central Arizona urban residential landscape settings might not result in less landscape water use compared with mesic landscapes.
Chris A. Martin, L. Brooke McDowell, Thomas E. Marler, and Jean C. Stutz
Seedlings of Carica papaya L. `Waimanalo' (papaya) were transplanted into 27-L containers filled with nonsterile composted landscape yard trimmings passed through a 1.3-cm screen. At transplanting, papaya plants were inoculated with either one of three different AMF communities or were not inoculated as control plants. Two of the AMF communities were from Arizona citrus orchards, and one AMF community was from an undisturbed western Chihuahuan Desert soil. After transplanting, papaya plants were grown for 4 months under well-watered conditions in a temperature-controlled (32 °C day/24 °C night) glasshouse (45% light exclusion). Control plants remained non-mycorrhizal. Total colonization of papaya roots by AMF communities ranged from 56% to 94%. Depending on mycorrhizal treatment, AMF arbuscules and internal hyphae were present in 30% to 60% and 20% to 24% of roots, respectively. Noticeably absent in papaya roots were AMF vesicles. Papaya height, trunk diameter, and leaf phosphorus concentration were similar for inoculated and control plants. Compared with control plants, papayas inoculated with AMF communities had about 20% less shoot dry weight and about 50% less root dry weight. Under nonlimiting conditions in an organic substrate, AMF communities did not stimulate papaya growth but rather appeared to function as a carbon sink.