The objective of this experiment was to compare the growth of impatiens `Accent Orange' in substrates containing compost made from biosolids and yard trimmings with four slow-release fertilizer application rates. Plugs of impatiens were transplanted into 400-ml pots filled with 100% compost as a stand-alone substrate or with 60%, 30%, or 0% compost combined with control substrate components. Six days after transplanting, all plants were top-dressed with 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g of Nutricote 13N-5.7P-10.8K (type 180) per pot. Shoot dry mass increased as the percentage of compost in the substrate increased from 0% to 100%. Shoot dry mass also increased as the fertilizer application rate increased from 0.5 to 4 g per pot. Plants grown in 30% and 60% compost with 0.5 g of fertilizer were similar in size to plants grown in 0% compost with 4 g of fertilizer per pot. Plants grown in 100% compost at all of the fertilizer rates were larger than all other plants in this study.
George Fitzpatrick* and Kimberly Moore
The Academic Program at Fort Lauderdale (APF), founded in 1984, and the Academic Program at Homestead (APH), founded in 2000, were established to enable place bound students to earn the Univ. of Fla. B.S. degree in horticulture. Although both programs are located within 60 miles of each other in the same general geographical area in southeastern Florida, there are significant demographic contrasts, as well as some similarities, between them. According to data published by the U.S. Census Bureau, the area defined by a 10-mile radius around the site of the APH has a population of ≈83,500, while the same area at the site of the APF has a population of more than 1,100,000, a 13-fold difference. The student profile at the two programs indicates a higher enrollment at APF, a higher average student age at APH, and a higher distance traveled to attend class at APF. Similarities include a student body comprised of people working in the horticultural industry who are working to earn a B.S. degree for career advancement, as well as an increasing number of students who are not currently working in horticulture but who are planning a career change.
Kimberly K. Moore
The ornamental horticulture industry uses a variety of materials as ingredients in growing substrates for many ornamental plants. There are many attributes that make growing substrates effective, including good aeration and drainage, availability at an acceptable price, and chemical attributes conducive for plant growth. In recent years there has been a trend in which more traditional organic components, such as Canadian sphagnum peat, have been partially replaced by an increasing array of waste-product compost. Plant response to increasing quantities of compost in the potting mix, and to different types of compost are variable. This paper reviews some important issues in the utilization of urban waste compost products.
Kimberly K. Moore
Growth of `Aladdin Peach Morn' petunia (Petunia × hybrida) and `Accent White' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) was compared in substrates containing 0%, 30%, 60%, or 100% compost made from biosolids and yard trimmings and fertilized with Nutricote Total 13-13-13 (13N-5.7P-10.8K) Types 70, 100, and 140 incorporated at rates of 0.5x, 1x, 2x, or 3x (x = standard application rate for a medium-feeding crop). Petunia shoot dry weight of plants fertilized with Type 70 incorporated at 0.5x increased as the percentage of compost in the substrate increased from 0% to 60% and then decreased, while shoot dry weight of plants fertilized with Type 70 incorporated at 1x, 2x, or 3x increased as the percentage of compost increased from 0% to 30% and then decreased. Impatiens shoot dry weight of plants fertilized with Type 70 incorporated at 0.5x and 1x also increased as the percentage of compost increased from 0% to 30% and then decreased, while shoot dry weight of plants fertilized at 2x and 3x decreased as the percentage of compost increased from 0% to 100%. Both petunia and impatiens shoot dry weight of plants fertilized with Type 100 and Type 140 incorporated at 0.5x, 1x, 2x, or 3x increased as the percentage of compost increased from 0% to 60% and then decreased.
Kimberly A. Klock-Moore
Growth of `Oasis Scarlet' begonia (Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum Hort.) and `Super Elfin Violet' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook. f.) was compared in substrates containing compost made from used greenhouse substrates and yard trimmings (GHC) and in compost made from biosolids and yard trimmings (SYT). Treatments consisted of 100% compost (GHC or SYT) or compost combined with control substrate components at 60%, 30%, or 0%. Substrates containing SYT compost produced significantly larger begonia and impatiens plants than substrates containing GHC compost. Higher initial substrate nutrient concentrations in substrates containing SYT probably prompted increased begonia and impatiens growth because substrates containing SYT compost had significantly higher initial soluble salt, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations than substrates containing GHC compost. Begonia and impatiens shoot dry mass and size linearly increased as the percentage of SYT compost in the substrate increased from 0% to 100%. However, no difference in begonia or impatiens growth was observed among the different percentages of GHC compost. Initial soluble salt, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations also linearly increased as the percentage of SYT increased while only initial P, K, and Ca concentrations linearly increased as the percentage of GHC increased.
Brian J. Pearson and Kimberly Moore
Increased global trade coupled with diversified employment opportunities demand college graduates possessing well-developed professional skills. Recent survey results identified the importance of professional skills among candidates seeking employment, with communication being recognized as the most important skill or quality when selecting candidates. The ability to work within a team structure, solve complex problems, and organize and prioritize work also ranked high among industry employment needs. Despite a rigorous focus on discipline-oriented knowledge and skills, development of professional skills in students of horticulture may be overlooked or not fully developed. Teaching methods can be modified to incorporate development of professional skills and discipline-oriented knowledge to enhance student employment preparedness and directly address industry needs.
Kimberly A. Klock-Moore and George E. Fitzpatrick
Analytical determination and confirmation of minimum compost processing times and minimum curing times can aid commercial growers in selecting compost materials that should give them more reliable and consistent results in their operations. Five-cubic-yard volumes of yard-trimmings were assembled into three 1.25-cubic-yard compost piles at 60-day intervals. At the conclusion of the experiment, there were three piles each of compost of the following ages: 10 months, 8 months, 6 months, and 2 months. Compost was collected from each pile and screened through a 0.75-inch screen. Bulk density, water-holding capacity, air-filled porosity, carbon to nitrogen ratio, electrical conductivity, and ATPase activity were determined on samples from each reference compost pile. A bioassay using beans also was performed. These data will be presented.
George E. Fitzpatrick and Kimberly A. Klock-Moore
Over the 10-year period of 1987-1997, the demographics of the student population enrolled in the University of Florida off-campus BS degree in horticulture program at Fort Lauderdale have changed. Average student age has increased from 35.5 years to 38.1 years. Age range has increased from 22 to 54 years to 21 to 75 years. Age distribution changes have been most notable. In 1987, the age of the student population was normally distributed, whereas by 1997 the distribution had become bimodal, with one mode in the age group 26 to 30 and the other mode in the 41 to 45 age group. Estimated median one-way distance traveled to attend classes has not changed significantly, from 13.2 miles (range 3.9-89.8 miles) in 1987 to 14.2 miles (range 1.0-59.8 miles) in 1997.
Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly K. Moore
Zonal geraniums (Pelargonium ×hortorum) from seed and african marigolds (Tagetes erecta), which are known to be highly susceptible to Fe toxicity problems, were grown with I, 2, 4, or 6 mm Fe from ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate, FeEDTA, FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, ferric glucoheptonate, or ferrous ammonium sulfate in the subirrigation solution. FeEDTA and FeDTPA were highly toxic to both species, even at the 1 mm rate. Ferrous sulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate caused no visible toxicity symptoms on marigolds, but did reduce dry weights with increasing Fe concentrations. Both materials were slightly to moderately toxic on zonal geraniums. FeEDDHA was only mildly toxic at the 1 mm concentration on both species, but was moderately toxic at the 2 and 4 mm concentrations. Substrate pH was generally negatively correlated with geranium dry weight and visible phytotoxicity ratings, with the least toxic materials, ferrous sulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate, resulting in the lowest substrate pHs and the chelates FeEDTA, FeDTPA, and FeEDDHA the highest pH. The ionic Fe sources, ferrous sulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate, suppressed P uptake in both species, whereas the Fe chelates did not. Fe EDDHA should be considered as an effective and less toxic alternative for the widely used FeEDTA and FeDTPA in the production of these crops.
George E. Fitzpatrick and Kimberly A. Klock-Moore
The average undergraduate horticulture major at the Univ. of Florida Academic Program at Fort Lauderdale is 38 years old. The older, non-traditional student population is quite diverse, but many individuals are motivated by a desire to change careers, and many of them have taken extensive academic course work at other institutions prior to applying for admission to the Univ. of Florida. Academic advisement of this type of student presents a substantial challenge because of the uncertainty of content and vigor of prior academic preparation. To help meet this challenge, we have developed several academic advisement checklists that indicate numbers and titles of critical preprofessional and general education courses from the academic institutions that have been most frequently attended by the highest numbers of the incoming non-traditional students. These checklists have been cross-referenced between the catalogs of the various academic institutions and the Univ. of Florida catalog. We use these documents to evaluate the academic preparation of incoming transfer students and to assist them in making correct course selections to remedy any academic deficiencies that could negatively influence their success in upper division horticulture course work.