Freshwater resources are being rapidly depleted because of the increased demand resulting from exponential world population growth and the effects of climate change, especially in arid and semiarid regions (e.g., Saudi Arabia). The present study aimed to examine the changes in growth and inflorescence production of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) plants in response to irrigation with saline or magnetized water, in addition to application of inorganic and/or organic soil amendments. Three different water types—tap water, magnetized saline water, and nonmagnetized saline water—were used to irrigate A. majus plants with or without soil amendments consisting of ferrous sulfate (Fe2SO4) and/or peatmoss. Irrigation with magnetized saline water adversely affected vegetative growth, inflorescence production, mineral contents, and survival rates of A. majus plants as compared with irrigation with tap water or magnetized saline water. Nevertheless, compared with unmagnetized saline water treatment, magnetizing nonmagnetized saline water before irrigation significantly improved water characteristics and plant growth and survival. Moreover, the addition of inorganic or organic soil amendments enhanced the growth of A. majus plants regardless of irrigation water type. Interestingly, the combination of irrigating with magnetized saline water and soil amendments (Fe2SO4 and peatmoss) significantly enhanced the growth of A. majus plants to a level that was comparable to that of control plants irrigated with tap water without soil amendments. Magnetization improved water quality and increased plants’ ability to absorb water and nutrients from soil solution. The utilization of magnetized saline water for irrigating food and forage crops either alone or in combination with soil amendments has potential benefits that warrant further research.
Peppermint (Mentha piperita), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) are important medicinal plants in the pharmacological industry. These plants are produced in commercial scale but their seeds exhibit low germination percentages under favorable germination conditions. Enhancing seed germination is thus crucial for improving the production of these plants. The influence of gibberellic acid (GA3), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indol-3-butyric acid (IBA), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on seed germination of the three plants were investigated. The seeds were soaked in each plant growth regulator at 50, 100, and 150 mg·L−1 for 24 hours at 25 ± 2 °C. Seed germination was checked daily for 20 days and germination parameters including final germination percentage (FGP), corrected germination rate (CGRI), and number of days lapsed to reach 50% of FGP (GT50) were recorded. The phosphorus and protein contents were determined in germinated seedlings on day 21 of culture. All plant growth regulators enhanced seed germination as compared with control. However, GA3 improved seed germination more than IAA, IBA, and NAA. GA3 at 100 mg·L−1 significantly increased the FGP from 22.3% and 33.3% (control) to 74% and 65.6% for peppermint and sweet basil, respectively. Low concentration of GA3 at 50 mg·L−1 increased the FGP for coriander from 27% to 52.3%. GA3 also increased CGRI, GT50, phosphorus, and protein contents in germinated seedlings as compared with control. Seeds of peppermint, sweet basil, and coriander possess a physiological dormancy that could be elevated by GA3 presowing treatment. This study established a successful methodology for optimizing seed germination to satisfy the demand for the medicinal parts of these plants in the pharmacological industry.