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- Author or Editor: Kenneth D. Shuler x
Celery (Apium graveolens L.) cultivars, Camlyn, Tall Utah 52-70R (IMP.), Florida 2-14, and Clean Cut were grown at within-row spacings of 10, 20, or 30 cm during the winter seasons of 1984–85 and 1985–86 in commercial celery fields located near South Bay, Fla. Stalks were trimmed to 36 or 51 cm height to simulate fresh and processing celery yields, respectively. Cultivars responded similarly to within-row spacings for each measured variable. Untrimmed or trimmed to 51-cm-stalk weights per plant or per hectare were not different among cultivars. ‘Camlyn’ when trimmed to a 36 cm height had a lower stalk weight and a smaller stalk diameter than the other cultivars except when compared with ‘Clean Cut’ in the 1984–85 experiment. Untrimmed and trimmed stalk weights increased linearly per hectare and decreased linearly per plant as within-row spacings decreased from 30 to 10 cm. Stalk diameter decreased quadratically as within-row spacings decreased from 30 to 10 cm. Marketable petiole number per plant decreased linearly in the 1984–85 experiment and quadratically in the 1985–86 experiment as within-row spacings decreased. Celery stalks produced at 10-cm within-row spacing were too small for optimum economic fresh market returns, although they produced the highest marketable yield per hectare for a processing market. Plants from a 20-cm within-row spacing were optimum for fresh market celery.
`Jupiter' and `Verdel' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) transplants set to the depth of cotyledon leaves or to the first true leaf yielded more fruit than transplants set to the top of the rootball. Increased yields and early stand establishment criteria (number of leaves, leaf area, plant weight, and plant height) suggest that planting pepper transplants deeper than is now common is commercially beneficial in Florida. Deeper plantings may place pepper roots in a cooler environment and reduce fluctuations in soil temperature. Moderated soil temperature, in conjunction with earlier fertilizer and water acquisition, may give deeper-planted pepper plants a competitive edge in growth.
Thorough precooling of bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L. cv. California Wonder) to 10°C (50°F) soon after harvest delayed, but did not prevent, soft rot decay caused by Erwinia carotovora (L. R. Jones) Holland. There was little weight loss and shrivel in any of the treatments. Inoculated peppers with intact or partial peduncles had better overall visual quality and were less decayed than peppers with no peduncles.
Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars were grown in nine Florida environments to evaluate phenotypic stability of marketable fruit yield (t-ha-') and mean fruit size (g/fruit). A stable cultivar excelled for a particular trait when grown in either favorable or unfavorable environments. A stable cultivar for a given trait was defined as one with an individual mean greater than the grand mean (mean of all cultivars) (x > X), a regression coefficient (b1) ≤ 1 (individual genotypic mean regressed against environmental means), nonsignificant deviation mean squares from regression (S2d), coefficient of linear determination (R2) > 0.50, and coefficient of variation (cv) < the pooled cv. `Ssupersweet 860', `Whopper Improved', and `Ranger' were stable for mean marketable fruit weights and fruit size, and `Ssupersweet 860' and `Whopper Improved' were stable for mean fruit size. Bell pepper cultivars were differentiated for phenotypic stability of yield and fruit size or adaptability to diverse environments. Therefore, through stability analyses, bell pepper plant breeders can identify cultivars or select advanced breeding lines that express adaptability for fruit yields or size to diverse environmental conditions or cultural practices.