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  • Author or Editor: Kazuko Ishikawa x
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Abstract

Activities and roles of 4 sorbitol enzymes, sorbitol-6-P dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase, NADP+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase, and acid invertase in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. ‘Jonnagold’) leaves and fruit were studied. Almost all of the soluble carbohydrates in leaves are present as sorbitol throughout the season. Sorbitol-6-P dehydrogenase had the highest activity among the enzymes, being high in young leaves and decreasing with age; whereas NAD+- and NADP+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenases and sorbitol oxidase activities were barely detectable. Sorbitol was translocated from leaves to fruits where it was readily metabolized to other sugars, so the sorbitol concentration did not increase. NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase that converts sorbitol to fructose had the highest activity of the 4 enzymes in developing fruits. Its activity rose in June, decreased in midseason, and increased again with fruit maturation. The fluctuation in enzyme activity corresponded to changes in fructose concentration. Sorbitol oxidase activity, which was about one-fifth that of NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase, increased proportionately as fruits enlarged. Acid invertase activity was distinctly higher than sorbitol enzyme activities in both leaves and fruit, but its roles in sugar translocation and metabolism were not clearly established. The levels of sorbitol in stems and peduncles remained relatively constant during the season indicating that little metabolism occurred in the phloem during transit.

Open Access