The objective of this study was to determine whether mesquite (Prosopis velutina) seedlings have a preference for the ammonia or nitrate form of nitrogen (N), and to determine the optimum rate of N to maximize growth and minimize N leaching when seedlings are grown in different substrates. Mesquite seedlings were fertigated with different ratios of NH4 +: NO3 - to determine effects on shoot and root growth and N-uptake efficiency. Nutrient solution containing 67% NH4 + : 33% NO3 - resulted in greatest biomass after 120 days of fertigation. N leachate remained stable until 12 weeks after the onset of treatment, but increased significantly by week 16. Subsequently, mesquite seedlings were grown in sand or soilless media and were fertigated with a solution of 67 % NH4 +: 33% NO3 - at a rate of 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg·L-1 of N. After 60 days, plants in media produced 41% more leaves and total biomass compared to those in sand. Leaf number was greatest for plants grown at 200 mg·L-1 of N in both substrates. Root biomass of plants in media showed no response to increasing N concentrations while root biomass of seedlings in sand were similar for the three lower N concentrations and nearly doubled for the highest one. Shoot biomass of seedlings receiving 25, 50, or 100 mg·L-1 of N was similar, but more than doubled for plants fertigated with 200 mg·L-1 of N. N leachate losses were highest from seedlings growing in sand and receiving the two higher N fertigations, those in media had greatest N leachate loss when fertigated at 200 mg·L-1 of N. For balanced mesquite seedling growth and minimum N leaching losses, concentrations between 50 to 100 mg·L-1 of N are recommended. Implications of using a sand culture system vs. soilless growing substrate for nutrition studies will be discussed.
Kathryn S. Hahne and Ursula K. Schuch*
Kathryn S. Hahne and Ursula K. Schuch
Velvet mesquite [Prosopis velutina Woot., Syn.: P. juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. velutina (Woot.) Sarg.] has become more popular in arid landscapes of the southwestern U.S., but little information on N requirements during the seedling stage is available. In addition to optimize growth of seedlings, minimizing N in runoff during production is an important consideration. Experiments were conducted to determine how biomass production and N leaching were affected first by different ratios of ammonium and nitrate N in sand culture and second by different N concentrations when seedlings were grown in two substrates. Mesquite seedlings produced the greatest biomass after 120 days when fertigated with a solution of 33 NO3 –: 67 NH4 +. Loss of N through leachate was 40% greater when NH + 4 comprised two thirds or more compared to one third or none in the fertigation solution. Nitrogen in leachate was highest after 16 weeks of treatment, coinciding with the reduced growth rate of seedlings. The second experiment utilized either sand or commercial growing media and a fertigation solution of 33 NO3 –: 67 NH4 +. Fertigation with 200 mg·L–1 N after 60 days in either substrate produced greatest biomass, while rates of 25, 50, or 100 mg·L–1 N produced about half of that biomass. With few exceptions, less N in either form was found in leachate when seedlings were grown in media and were fertigated with the two higher N rates compared to seedlings grown in sand at the two higher N rates. Plant morphology, biomass accumulation, photosynthate allocation, and the fate of N in the growing substrate and in leachate were strongly affected by the choice of growing substrate.
Kathryn S. Hahne and Richard L. Harkess
The Transplanted Floral Meadow is a culture technique designed to provide an herbaceous planting of continuous seasonal bloom beginning about 1 month after transplanting to the landscape. The technique requires little or no maintenance once the plants have become established. The meadow consists of a seed mix of annual flowers that are started in the greenhouse in mixed plugs and transplanted to the landscape. In this study, plugs of the annual transplanted floral meadow seed mix were started by broadcasting the seed mix over flats of standard nursery cell-packs filled with a commercial growing medium. The plugs were grown in the greenhouse and transplanted to plots 4 weeks after sowing at 30 × 30-, 30 × 45-, or 30 × 60-cm spacing. The plug sizes used were 801, 1801, 804, or 1804 cell-packs. The plugs were transplanted to 2.25-m2 plots with three replications, each plot being a replication. Plug size and spacing were evaluated based on the rate of canopy closure measured biweekly as the amount of photosynthetically active radiation penetrating the canopy. Close transplant spacing with large plug sizes provided the quickest site coverage. The 1801 and 801 plug sizes provided the greatest species diversity. The 1804 plug size reduced the number of seedlings present at the time of transplanting and did not cover the site until late in the season. The 801 and 1801 plug sizes at 30 × 30or 30 × 45-cm spacing resulted in the best floral display. The results of this research will be used to standardize the transplanted floral meadow technique for use as a new product in the nursery trade.