A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the response to drought stress of marigold (Tagetes patula L. `Janie Tangerine') plants grown with reduced phosphorus. Plants were grown with convention al phosphorus fertilization (1 mm, control) or one of two levels of alumina-buffered phosphorus (Al-P), 21 or 5 μm. Plants supplied with 21 μm Al-P produced plants with equal total dry weight, more flowers and reduced leaf area compared to control plants. Whole-plant photosynthetic CO2 assimilation expressed on a leaf area basis was nearly twice as high in 21 μm Al-P plants as in controls, probably as a result of reduced intraplant shading. In plants supplied with 21 μm Al-P, smaller leaf area resulted in reduced whole-plant transpiration. Moreover, the relative water content of the growing medium was significantly lower at wilting with 21 μm Al-P than for control or 5 μm Al-P regimes. The improved water acquisition with 21 μm Al-P could be explained by increased root proliferation via longer main roots and less densely distributed lateral roots. The results indicate that optimizing phosphorus nutrition with solid-phase buffered-phosphorus fertilizer improves drought tolerance by reducing transpiration and increasing water acquisition from the medium.
Kristian Borch, Carter Miller, Kathleen M. Brown, and Jonathan P. Lynch
Hye-Ji Kim, Richard Craig, and Kathleen M. Brown
Ethylene induces significant petal abscission in regal pelargonium (Pelargonium ×domesticum L.H. Bailey). Three genotypes, `Elegance Silver' and its progeny, 00-43-1 and 00-43-2, were developed with exceptional production and postproduction characteristics. These genotypes had significantly enhanced individual floret longevity and whole plant longevity, and displayed more than twice as many florets as commercial cultivars. Dose response analysis demonstrated that `Elegance Silver' has reduced ethylene responsiveness throughout floret development, shown by lower petal abscission than other cultivars over a range of ethylene concentrations. Floret longevity was strongly correlated with ethylene responsiveness as indicated by S50 (ethylene concentration for 50% petal abscission), but not with ethylene production. These results suggest that reduced ethylene responsiveness is an important determinant of enhanced postproduction performance in the superior genotypes of regal pelargonium.
Kristian Borch, Kathleen M. Brown, and Jonathan P. Lynch
Bedding plants are frequently exposed to water stress during the postproduction period, resulting in reduced quality. We demonstrated that alumina-buffered P fertilizer (Al-P) provides adequate but much lower P concentrations than conventionally used in soilless mixes. When impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook. f. `Impulse Orange') and marigold (Tagetes patula L. `Janie Tangerine') plants were grown with reduced phosphorus using Al-P, P leaching was greatly reduced and plant quality was improved. Diameter of impatiens plants and leaf area of plants of both species were reduced by Al-P. Marigold plants grown with Al-P had more flowers and fewer wilted flowers. Flower wilting was also reduced for impatiens plants grown with Al-P. In marigold plants, roots were confined to a small volume beneath the drip tube in control plants, while roots of Al-P plants were well distributed through the medium. There was no obvious difference in impatiens root distribution. When plants at the marketing stage were exposed to drought, the Al-P plants of both species wilted more slowly than the conventionally fertilized controls. The reduced leaf area in both species and the improved root distribution of marigold may account for the improvement in drought tolerance of the Al-P plants.
Charles S. Vavrina, Kathleen M. Brown, Robert Snyder, Mike Orzolek, and Jonathan P. Lynch
`FTE 30' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) transplants were produced in Florida under standard commercial conditions and supplied with one of six treatments: zero, low (20% of the control rate), or high (control) super-phosphate (SP) fertilizer, or 0.5%, 1%, or 2% buffered-phosphorous fertilizer (Al-P). Growth characteristics were evaluated for four sets of transplants, produced in January, April, May, and August. Two sets of transplants were grown in the field in Florida (started in January and August) and one set was grown in Pennsylvania during the summer (started in May). Phosphorus concentration in leachate was measured weekly from one crop. Plants grown with Al-P showed a 72% to 88% reduction in P released in leachate compared with the high SP control. Transplants produced with 1% or 2% Al-P were of equal size and quality compared with transplants produced with conventional (high SP) fertilization, and had greater total root length and specific root length (length per unit root weight). Transplants grown with 0.5% Al-P were sometimes smaller than other fertilized treatments, while no-P plants were very small and grew slowly after transplanting. There were no significant differences in growth, yield, or fruit quality of plants fromtransplants grown with 1% or 2% Al-P or high SP at either site. Therefore high quality tomato transplants can be produced using buffered-P fertilizer, while reducing P leaching from the containers.
Mayuki Tanaka, Robert Snyder, John K. Boateng, William J. Lamont, Michael D. Orzolek, Kathleen M. Brown, and Jonathan P. Lynch
The utility of alumina-buffered phosphorus (Al-P) fertilizers for supplying phosphorus (P) to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in soils with low-P availability was evaluated. Plants were grown at low-P fertility (about 100 kg·ha–1, low-P control; LPC), with conventional P fertilization (205-300 kg·ha–1 annually, fertilizer control; FC), or with one of two Al-P sources (Martenswerke or Alcoa) in 2001–03. The two Al-P fertilizers were applied in 2001; no additional material was applied in 2002-03. Plants grown with Martenswerke Al-P had similar shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root length, leaf P concentration, and fruit yield compared with plants grown with conventional P fertilizer in both 2002 and 2003 seasons. Bell pepper grown with Alcoa Al-P had similar shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root length, leaf P concentration, and fruit yield compared with plants grown without P fertilizer in both seasons. Alcoa Al-P continuously released bioavailable P for 2 years between 2001 and 2002, while Martenswerke Al-P continuously released bioavailable P at least 3 years between 2001 and 2003. These results indicate that some formulations of Al-P can serve as long-term P sources for field vegetable production.