Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 34 items for

  • Author or Editor: Kathleen Kelley x
Clear All Modify Search

The effect of kaolin (Surround™) on walnut quality parameters, including edible yield, reflected light index, insect damage, off grade, price per pound, and the incidence and severity of sunburn, were evaluated over a 4-year period in `Vina' and `Chandler' walnut orchards. Results indicate that applications of kaolin significantly improved edible yield, reflected light index, price per pound, and the incidence and severity of sunburn in most orchards in most years. Improvements in these parameters were more consistent with the `Vina' cultivar. Off-grade was not significantly reduced by the use of kaolin. Codling moth damage levels were too low to detect in all orchards in all years.

Free access

Eight edamame (Glycine max) cultivars were evaluated in the field in 2002, 2003, and 2004 to determine suitability for growing in central Pennsylvania. Data collection included plant populations (percent stand), marketable and unmarketable yields and edamame pod and bean quality indicators. Plant populations varied by year and cultivar and were generally below 80%. The effect of temperature on seedling emergence, and therefore plant populations, was evaluated for four edamame cultivars by using growth chambers programmed with varying day/night temperature regimes. Seedling emergence varied by cultivar and was generally below 80% with two exceptions. When grown in a 70/60 °F day/night temperature regime, `Butterbeans', and `Early Hakucho' exceeded 80% seedling emergence. In the field trial, plant populations affected marketable yields. Pod and bean quality were dependent on cultivar. Results indicated that `Butterbeans', `Early Hakucho', `Green Legend', `Shironomai', `Butterbaby', and `Lucky Lion' appear promising for growing in Pennsylvania based on pod and bean quality. However, the issue of poor seedling emergence and plant populations presents a major constraint to commercial production and needs to be studied further.

Full access

Two separate consumer-marketing studies were conducted between 30 Oct. and 2 Dec. 2002 to determine consumer awareness and potential demand for edamame [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. The first study consisted of a sensory evaluation that included 113 participants who tasted and rated three edamame cultivars based on firmness and overall appeal and then ranked the beans in order of preference at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park Campus. To estimate demand, the participants answered questions regarding their likelihood to purchase edamame after the sensory evaluation. The second study, a telephone survey, was administered by a marketing firm to determine consumer awareness of edamame as well as their produce purchasing habits. Responses were collected from 401 consumers within the Metro-Philadelphia area. Consumer reaction to the sensory evaluation was positive, and after reading about the health benefits, a majority of consumers (92%) indicated they would likely purchase edamame and serve it in a meal whereas 89% gave this response after only sampling the edamame beans. When responses were compared among cultivars, overall liking for `Green Legend' (6.29; 1 = extremely dislike; 9 = like extremely) was significantly lower than for `Kenko' (6.84); however, neither cultivar was significantly different from `Early Hakucho' (6.62). Participants also rated `Kenko' as having a firmness that was `just about right'. Verbal comments from participants leaving the evaluation site included interest in purchasing edamame and inquiries as to where it could be purchased in the vicinity of the university. Telephone survey participants also expressed a willingness to purchase edamame and serve it in a meal after hearing about the potential health benefits (66%). Based on consumer responses to selected telephone survey questions, three distinct marketing segments were created. Potential purchasers (58% of participants), consisted of consumers who were more likely to consider the importance of the nutritional content of vegetables they purchased (73%), included the greatest percent of consumers who had purchased soy or soy-based products (70%), and were very likely (51%) and somewhat likely (46%) to eat edamame after learning about the health benefits. The second largest segment of participants characterized as unlikely edamame eaters (22% of participants) consisted of individuals who were very likely (20%) and somewhat likely (43%) to purchase vegetables they had never eaten before if evidence suggested that it might decrease the risk of cancer and/or other diseases. However, within this group, none of the participants were either very likely or somewhat likely to eat edamame after being told about the health benefits. The last group, characterized as requires convincing (20% of participants), consisted of individuals who were the least likely to base produce-purchasing decisions on the nutritional content of vegetables. After learning about health benefits specific to edamame, 8% of these participants were very likely and 48% were somewhat likely to eat edamame. Hence, separate marketing strategies may need to be developed to target these distinct segments based on interest in eating edamame, importance of nutritional information, and current vegetable purchasing habits.

Free access

A field trial investigating the use of living mulches for weed management in edamame (Glycine max), also known as vegetable soybean, was conducted in 2003 at the Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center, Rock Springs, Pa. Edamame was direct seeded on 24-25 June 2003. Seven weeks later, the living mulch treatments were broadcast seeded. The living mulch species were white clover (Trifolium repens), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and a control with no living mulch (bare ground). Each living mulch plot was divided into a weeded and non-weeded subplot. Weed pressure was evaluated every 2 weeks from the time living mulches were sown. Data collected included the total number of weeds present, number of different species present, number of broadleaf and grass species and number of annual and perennial species. The total number of weeds in weeded and non-weeded subplots was lowest in the buckwheat and highest in the clover. Species diversity in weeded subplots was lowest for the control and highest in clover while species diversity in non-weeded subplots was lowest in buckwheat and highest in the control. Overall, most weeds present were broadleaf annuals including pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.), shepard's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris), common lambsquarters (Cheno-podium album) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea). Based on this 1-year study, which will be repeated in 2004, the buckwheat treatment is likely the most effective in managing weeds in edamame field production for consideration by Pennsylvania growers.

Free access

Eight edamame [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars were evaluated in the field in 2002, 2003, and 2004 to determine their suitability for growing in central Pennsylvania. Each cultivar was direct seeded and data collected included plant populations (percentage of stand) and marketable yields. Plant populations ranged from less than 1% to 81% and, with one exception in 2002, were below 80%. Eighty percent plant populations or higher are considered optimal. Based on sub-optimal plant populations, none of the edamame cultivars evaluated in the field were determined to be suitable for direct seeding in central Pennsylvania. The effect of temperature on seedling emergence, and therefore, plant populations was then studied. Four of the edamame cultivars used in the field trial were evaluated in growth chambers programmed with varying day/night temperature regimes. Seedling emergence varied by cultivar and was generally below 80% with two exceptions. When grown in a 21.1 °C day/15.6 °C night temperature regime, `Butterbeans' and `Early Hakucho' exceeded 80% seedling emergence. These methods could be used to produce transplants; however, the economic feasibility of doing so should first be evaluated. In the field trial, conclusions on marketable yields were unattainable because soybean plants are known to compensate in yield for plants missing in sub-optimal plant populations. Plant compensation and sub-optimal plant populations rendered yield comparisons between cultivars questionable. The issue of sub-optimal seedling emergence and plant population needs to be studied further before suitability of growing these edamame cultivars in central Pennsylvania can be determined.

Free access

A consumer-research study was conducted in Fall 2003 to determine professional chefs' preferences for edamame or vegetable soybean (Glycine max) cultivars, their estimated demand for edamame and their interest in acquiring edamame from local Pennsylvania growers. Twenty chefs in the Metro-Philadelphia area were provided with shelled (beans removed from the pod) and unshelled edamame of three cultivars, `Early Hakucho,' `Green Legend', and `Kenko,' and asked to create a recipe using edamame as an ingredient. Chefs were also asked to rate the edamame cultivars based on overall appeal and firmness and complete a follow-up survey on their preferences for the edamame provided, prior use and interest in locally grown edamame. Chefs preferred shelled `Green Legend' edamame, but many indicated that all cultivars were acceptable. The majority of chefs also noted that they were “very likely” to use edamame as an ingredient in a recipe again and 70% noted that they were interested in obtaining contact information for small-acreage growers in Pennsylvania who produce edamame. Results indicate that there is likely a demand for edamame amongst chefs in the Metro-Philadelphia area. Results from this study will be used to develop a marketing strategy for small-acreage growers.

Free access

Three intercept surveys were conducted at the Southeast Research and Extension Center in Landisville, Pa., at three separate field days during the period of 28 July to 4 Aug. 2004 to determine grower (n = 78), retailer/landscaper (n = 52), and consumer (n = 55) interest in annual planters. Survey participants were self-selected and asked to answer questions evaluating their preferences and past experience with annual planters. Consumer participants also evaluated planters based on flower-color harmony, container style, and price on a scale of 1 to 7 (1 = very unlikely to purchase, 7 = very likely to purchase) and answered sociographic and demographic questions. Container evaluations were analyzed using conjoint analysis to determine consumer preferences. Price was found to be the most important factor, accounting for 43.1% of the decision to purchase an annual planter. No significance was found comparing the lowest ($19.98) and middle ($29.98) prices; however, both were significantly more preferred than the highest price point ($39.98). Color harmony was the next most important factor, accounting for 34.9% of the decision to purchase followed by container style (22.0%). When asked what they would pay, on average, for the containers on display, consumer participants responded with a price of $25.68. A majority of retail/landscape participants in this study had never sold annual planters within their company (75.0%), whereas a majority of grower participants had produced annual planters in the past (75.0%). Retailer/landscape participants also indicated that they would charge their customers an average retail price of $31.67, which was 14% less than the growers’ suggested average retail price of $36.83 based on the $21.68 wholesale price they assigned.

Full access

One hundred forty-nine consumers participated in a sensory evaluation, conducted on 14 Nov. 2008, at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, to determine consumer acceptance and perceptions of scab-resistant apples (Malus ×domestica). Consumers were exclusively screened for liking and eating apples. The study provides tree fruit growers and marketers in the mid-Atlantic United States with information on consumer preferences for apples that might substitute for common cultivars that require frequent apple scab pesticide applications. Resistant cultivars are also attractive in organic production systems. During the 10-minute sensory evaluation, panelists rated five scab-resistant apples [‘Crimson Crisp’, ‘GoldRush’, NY 75907–49 (NY 49), ‘Crimson Topaz’, and ‘Sundance’] and a commercially available non-resistant cultivar, Jonagold, on appearance, aroma, texture, flavor, and overall liking using a nine-point hedonic scale (9 = “like extremely” and 1 = “dislike extremely”). Three of the four apples tested with a red peel (‘Crimson Topaz’, NY 49, and ‘Crimson Crisp’) were rated significantly higher than the other apples on the basis of appearance, receiving mean ratings that were between “like moderately” and “like very much,” a rating of 7 and 8, respectively. In regards to texture, ‘Crimson Topaz’ and ‘Crimson Crisp’ were significantly higher than ‘Jonagold’ and NY 49, with mean ratings between “like slightly” and “like moderately.” For overall liking scores, ‘Crimson Crisp’, which was rated between “like slightly” and “like moderately,” was not significantly different from ‘Crimson Topaz’ and ‘GoldRush’; however, ‘Crimson Crisp’ was rated higher than ‘Jonagold’, NY 49, and ‘Sundance’. Panelists also responded to questions regarding their food-purchasing attitudes and behaviors. Sixty-two percent of panelists purchased fresh apples for themselves and/or other household members at least “two or three times a month” during an average year. Only 2.7% responded that they purchased fresh apples “more than once a week.” This study of consumer preferences provides an initial assessment of the feasibility of marketing new apple cultivars and organic apples within the mid-Atlantic U.S. region. Those that performed well in the sensory evaluation should be candidates for additional market research.

Full access