A factorial combination of gibberellic acid (GA3) and benzyladenine (BA) was applied in 20% white exterior latex paint to large (40 cm long, >2.5 cm diameter) stem segments of Acer saccharinum L. (silver maple) to determine the effects on forcing new softwood shoots in the greenhouse or laboratory and the subsequent growth of these new shoots in vitro. Stem segments were harvested from 10-year-old field-grown coppice shoots. The GA3/BA-paint mixes were applied to the entire stem segments that were forced in plastic flats filled with 1 perlite: 1 vermiculite (by volume) and watered with care so as not to wet the new softwood shoots. The flats and stem segments were drenched weekly with Zerotol (0.18% H2O2). The softwood shoots were harvested when they were at least 3 cm long. After disinfesting and rinsing, the nodal and shoot tip explants were established aseptically in vitro on DKW medium with no cytokinin or with 10-8M thidiazuron. Coppice shoots were harvested, cut, and painted on 9 Sept., 28 Oct., and 12 Dec. 2005. Although there were no significant differences in shoot production among stem segments painted with various combinations of GA3/BA, stems treated with plant growth regulators produced a mean of 2.7, 1.8, or 0.5 shoots for the three harvest dates compared to 0.5, 0.0, or 0.25 shoots on control stem segments. It is well-known that shoot forcing is poor from September through January; however, use of GA3/BA resulted in growth of dormant epicormic shoots. Shoot tip explants produced the most shoots in vitro after 8 weeks if they were harvested from stem segments treated with 0.03 mM GA3, whereas nodal explants produced the most shoots if harvested from segments that had been treated with 0.01 mM GA3.
Katayoun Mansouri and John E. Preece
Faheem Aftab, Katayoun Mansouri and John E. Preece
The objectives of this research were to study the effects of three environments (lab, mist, or fog), four media treatments [perlite, vermiculte, 1 perlite: 1 vermiculite (by volume), or a control (empty flats)] and zerotol treatments on shoot forcing and subsequent transfer of explants to in vitro conditions. Stem segments from field-grown trees were cut to 40-cm lengths before being placed in flats with the media treatments. Half of the flats under mist and fog were drenched weekly with zerotol (0.18% H2O2). In a separate study, silver maple was forced under mist and drenched weekly with zerotol at 0%, 0.09%, 0.108%, 0.135%, 0.18%, 0.27%, or 0.54% H2O2. Shoots (≥5 cm) were harvested and nodal and shoot tip explants were surface disinfested and placed in vitro on DKW medium with 10-8 M thidiazuron plus 1.0 μM indolebutyric acid. Species did not interact with environment, media, or zerotol treatment, and silver maple produced a mean of 6 shoots per stem segment, while green ash produced a mean of 1.2 shoots. There was a significant interaction among perlite, vermiculite and environment, with the most shoots (6.7/stem segment) produced under mist in the perlite: vermiculite mix. Silver maple explants from the lab had only 4% microbial contamination, whereas 68% of explants from fog and 92.2% of explants from mist were contaminated. When forcing was under fog, in perlite, and drenched with zerotol, explants had a 43% rate of contamination. In a separate study, when silver maple stems were placed under mist and drenched weekly with 0.18% H2O2, 46% (18 of 39 explants) established cleanly in vitro. Contamination was higher with misted explants that were drenched with higher or lower concentrations of zerotol.