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- Author or Editor: Karl Guillard x
Turf managers are continually seeking improved grasses, management practices, and products that enhance heat and drought tolerance and reduce supplemental irrigation needs. To this end, products like seaweed extract (SWE) have been extensively studied on short-cut (≤12 mm) golf turf and seedlings of various turfgrass species exposed to stress conditions. Few studies, however, have reported SWE effects on mature, higher cut (≥38 mm) cool-season turfgrass swards. A 3-year field study (2013–15) was conducted in Connecticut to determine the effect of various SWE treatments on the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) response of nonirrigated kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) turf managed as a lawn and cut at 76.2 mm. Separate experiments for each species were set out as randomized complete block designs with three replicates. Throughout the growing season in each year, various liquid SWEs were applied at a concentration of 9.55 L·ha−1 weekly or 19.1 L·ha−1 biweekly. A nontreated control was included. The study lacked extreme heat stress conditions during the yearly growing seasons, but periodic moisture deficits below normal were present. Within each year, there were no significant SWE effects on the NDVI of either species. The results suggest that there is no improvement in the NDVI by applying SWEs to mature, higher cut cool-season turfgrass lawns under less than extreme heat-stress conditions, water-stress conditions, or both. Because this study was conducted only at one site without extreme stress, further research of SWE applications to established, higher cut cool-season turfgrass lawns should be conducted across different locations and soils to determine the effects of applying SWE to these stands under extreme heat-stress conditions, water-stress conditions, or both.
Adequate turfgrass sod strength for harvesting and handling is typically determined by the producer’s past experience and subjective appraisal. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between producer subjective sod-strength assessments and quantitative shear-strength measurements with predominantly kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) turf. Across three consecutive growing seasons, 93 samples were collected from sod fields in Rhode Island and assessed for sod strength by subjective and quantitative methods. Producer subjective ratings of sod strength were significantly (P < 0.0001) associated with quantitative measurements of peak force required to shear a sod strip. Minimally acceptable strength occurred most frequently when peak shear force was between 55 and 85 kg·m−1 width of sod; whereas preferred sod strength occurred most frequently when peak shear force was between 70 and 140 kg·m−1 width of sod. Once peak force exceeded 58 and 86 kg·m−1, there was a > 50% probability that sod strength would be judged at least adequate and at preferred strength, respectively, up to a peak force of 140 kg·m−1. The results suggest that quantitative measurements of shear strength can be related to producer subjective assessments, and provide unbiased benchmark values to guide management decisions for kentucky bluegrass sod production.
A composting facility in New Milford, Conn. (NMF), utilizes food-processing residuals, including spent tea leaves, coffee grounds, cocoa shell and cleanings, wastewater treatment sludge from a food ingredients manufacturing plant, and past-expiration processed vegetable products. Materials are composted in aerated, frequently turned windrows under cover. The range of inputs, combined with time constraints on the composting process, has resulted in a variable, immature compost product with a high rate of microbial activity. Users have expressed concern about potential phytotoxicity or nutrient immobilization from using NMF compost. Therefore, research was conducted to determine the influence of cured and uncured NMF compost amendments on potentially sensitive crops with high nutrient requirements. Arugula (Eruca vesicaria) and green bibb lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were grown on two Connecticut organic farm research sites in 1998 and 1999. Both sites have soils classified as coarse loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic, typic, Dystraudepts. Farms differed in the length of time under organic farm management. One farm has been an organic farm since 1988 and consequently has high soil fertility, while the other was a first-year organic farm in 1998, and had relatively low soil fertility. Three amendment types were applied: cured compost, uncured compost, and organic fertilizer (5N-3P2O5-4K2O). Amendment application rates were estimated to provide a comparable range of plant-available nutrients for the amendments and a control without fertilizer. Compost application rates were 3.4, 6.8, 20.2, 35.8, and 71.7 Mg·ha-1 (dry-weight basis) in 1998 and 11.2, 22.4, 44.8, and 89.6 Mg·ha-1 (dry-weight basis) in 1999. Organic fertilizer application rates were 1.34, 2.68, 5.36, 10.72, and 21.44 Mg·ha-1 in 1998 and 1.34, 2.68, 5.38, and 10.72 Mg·ha-1 in 1999. Soil organic matter and nutrients increased with amendment application rate at both locations. Crop yields increased with amendment rate at the new, lower-fertility farm, but yields did not respond to amendments at the older, higher-fertility farm. Yield differences were minor between the uncured and cured compost treatments at both locations. This indicates that either cured or uncured NMF food-processing residual compost can be successfully used as an organic soil amendment for salad green production.