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Karim H. Al-Juboory

Shoots of greenhouse-grown Pothos were surface disinfested and explanted on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Later they were treated with pulsed XeCl excimer laser radiation for 30 sec. Cultures treated with 12 or 25 pulses of excimer laser radiation showed only 23% and 10% contamination, respectively, versus 75% control. Inaddition, we demonstrated that pulsed XeCl excimer laser radiation affected the subsequent growth and regenerability of in vitro plants. The reason for this increased growth needs further investigation. Both BA and TDZ were important for increasing the number of shoots generated from a microshoot as well as inducing shoot organogenesis from Pothos callus. Of the 50 rooted ex vitro plants from this experiment only 30% were variegated like parental clone. The others were either pure green or albino, suggesting chimeral segregation.

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Karim H. Al-Juboory

The seeds of two cultivars of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Medjol and Deglet-Nour) were cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5 mg/l NAA and 2.0 mg/l BA. Later they were treated with 25 or 50 pulses of excimer laser radiation. The results indicate that these seeds exhibited significantly less contamination than control. The highest percentage germination for both cultivars was obtained with explants treated with 50 pulses excimer laser radiation. Compared to other treatments, the occurrence of somatic embryo-genesis and shoot regeneration was greater with the Medjol cultivar.

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Karim H. Al-Juboory

Shoot proliferation of Gardenia jasminoides was achieved from cultured shoot tips on Nitsch and Nitsch medium supplemented with different levels (0.0–0.6 mg·L–1) of zeatin, BAP, BA, TDZ, and kinetin. Zeatin proved to be the most effective cytokinin for stimulating shoot proliferation. Shoot length obtained with zeatin was shorter than with other cytokinins and shoot leaves were narrower. Shoot tips were cultured on Nitsch and Nitsch medium supplemented with BA at 4.0 mg·L–1 combined with IAA at 0.0–0.2 mg·L–1. The results indicated that BA at 4.0 mg·L–1 with 0.1 IAA produced greater shoot proliferation. Plantlets regenerated in vitro were then transferred to a mixture of 1 peat: 1 perlite: 1 soil and acclimatized for potting. Our results show that micropropagation of Gardenia has high potential for use in commercial industry.

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Karim H. Al-Juboory and David J. Williams

Shoot tip explants of Algerian Ivy Heder a canariensis were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with a combination of salt strength and NAA and IBA. More roots per explant developed on full salt strength medium combined with NAA. The most roots per explant were obtained with a combination of IBA and 1/4 MS salt. There was an inverse relationship between an increase in IBA or NAA concentration and root length and number. Shoots proliferated better on full MS salt combined with NAA and IBA. The highest level of NAA (40 uM) and 0.1 uM TDZ produced the most shoots and roots, the longest roots, the highest rooting percentage, the largest plants with the most leaves and the best callus quality per explant. The leaves from in vitro were cultured on MS medium with varying levels of Thidiazuron (TDZ) and NAA in the presence of light produced the highest number of roots.

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David J. Williams and Karim H. Al-Juboory

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of various cultivars of Hosta ovary explants to generate adventitious shoots and obtain variegated plants in vitro. Immature inflorescences along with 8 to 10 cm of scape were harvested from Hosta cultivars. The ovaries were prepared for culture by cutting immature florets before anthesis. The florets were first cut just above the top of the immature ovary to remove the sigma, style, corolla, and anther. Then the calyx and filament bases were also removed. Ovaries were transversely cut into halves and transferred to baby jars containing Hosta initiation medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 0.5 mg/L and 6-benzylamino purine (BA). The explants produced adventitious shoots from ovary base via organogenesis. The number of shoots regenerated from shoot tips and callus increased linearly with repeatedf subculturing on MS medium. This method would provide an effective alternative to conventional propagation crown division of Hosta, an expensive and slow process. The long-term goal of this project is to improve Hosta.

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Karim H. Al-Juboory and David J. Williams

Shoot tip explants of Algerian Ivy Heder a canariensis were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with a combination of salt strength and NAA and IBA. More roots per explant developed on full salt strength medium combined with NAA. The most roots per explant were obtained with a combination of IBA and 1/4 MS salt. There was an inverse relationship between an increase in IBA or NAA concentration and root length and number. Shoots proliferated better on full MS salt combined with NAA and IBA. The highest level of NAA (40 uM) and 0.1 uM TDZ produced the most shoots and roots, the longest roots, the highest rooting percentage, the largest plants with the most leaves and the best callus quality per explant. The leaves from in vitro were cultured on MS medium with varying levels of Thidiazuron (TDZ) and NAA in the presence of light produced the highest number of roots.

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Karim H. Al-Juboory and David J. Williams

Three node stem cuttings of Algerian Ivy Hedera canariensis were sprayed with growth regulators to incipient runoff under greenhouse conditions. The results demonstrated that the combination of BA + GA4+7, (Promalin) promoted branching of Algerian Ivy better than applications of BA or GA4+7 alone. Plants treated with Atrinal developed more shoots per node than those treated with GA4+7, BA, or Promalin. Increasing concentration of Atrinal from 0 to 3000 ppm, also reduced branch length and leaf number for both pinched and unpinched plants. 2,3,5—triodobenzoic acid (TIBA) significantly increased the branching of Algerian Ivy, although plant shape was not commercially acceptable due to epinasity of the foliage.

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David J. Williams and Karim H. Al-Juboory

University of Illinois, Department of Horticulture, Plant Science Lab, 1201 S. Dorner, Urbana, IL.

Calli were initiated from immature inflorescences of selected cultivars of Hosta in the light on Hosta initiation medium (Carolina Biological Supply Company, 1986). Three cultivars, Francee, Birchwood Park's Gold, and Wide Brim Sum & Substance, produced microshoots. The calli were compact and green in color. The highest percentage of callus formation occurred with the Francee cultivar. Nakaiana, Golden Edger, Golden Scepter, Obscura, Sum & Substance, and Shade Fanfare produced only calli. The calli were transferred to modified Murashige and Skoog salts. The media containing 5 × 5 factorial combinations of NAA and BA (0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/l). The results show that media with NAA at 1.0 and 2.0 mg/l in combination with BA from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/l produced the highest number of microshoots per explant.

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Karim H. Al-Juboory and Jabar H. Al-Niami

Thidiazuron (TDZ) and benzylamino purine stimulated shoot proliferation on shoot tip explants of wild apple (Malus domestica Borkh) when incorporated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at concentrations of 1.0–10 μm. Shoot numbers obtained with TDZ were greater than the number produced when using BA in the medium but the shoots were shorter than with BA. Increasing TDZ levels increased shoot proliferation with 10 μm. Apple shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium with 2.0 mg·L–1 NAA and then transferred to a mixture of 1 peat: 1 perlite: 1 soil and acclimatized for potting.

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Karim H. Al-Juboory and Jabar H. Al-Niami

Leaves of wild apple (Malus domestica Borkh) were excised from in vitro grown shoots transversely cut into halves and plated onto petri dishes containing regeneration media. Cultures were kept in the dark for three weeks before adventitious shoots were observed. Callus from leaf explants produced adventitious shoots after 3 months of in vitro culture. Callus were cultured on Nitsch and Nitsch medium supplemented with a range of BA (0.0–2.0 μm) and NAA (0.0–10 μm). BA at 10 μm combined with NAA (0.5 μm) proved most effective for stimulating shoot proliferation of cultured apple. Plantlets from tissue culture were easily transferred to the greenhouse environment.