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- Author or Editor: K.S. Yoder x
In 1995, BAS-125W applied at 125 to 500 mg/liter 23 days after full bloom (AFB) to `Starkrimson Delicious'/MM 106 and MM111 reduced average shoot weight and length of the longest shoots in the top and scaffold limbs by 50% at the highest rate. The number of nodes on the lower 40 cm of each shoot was increased by 1.8 times by the growth retardant. The number of pruning cuts, pruning time, and pruning weight per tree was reduce by 30%, 20%, and 29%. Fruit diameter, color, soluble solids, starch, fruit weight, and fruit number per tree were not altered by BAS-125 W. Growth suppression appeared to be greater on trees with heavier crop loads. In 1996, BAS-125W applied at 250 mg/liter 8 days after full bloom was more effective than when applied 19 days AFB to `Starkrimson Delicious'/MM 106 and MM111. Multiple applications of two, three, and four sprays to the same trees at 3-week intervals further reduced shoot growth with each application. Four applications reduced shoot weight by 72%, shoot length by 60%, and basal shoot diameter by 25%, and the number of pruning cuts, pruning time, and pruning weight per tree was reduce by 75%, 55%, and 80%, respectively. Thinning activity of NAA, Sevin, or Accel was not affected by tank mixed sprays with BAS-125W when applied to Gala/M.27 trees 20 days AFB. Tank mixing BAS-125W with combinations of Vydate + Accel or Carbaryl + Accel + Oil did not alter fruit thinning of Fuji/M.27 (at 10 mm fruit diameter). In one experiment, BAS-125 may have potentiated thinning by ethephon and NAA 10 days AFB in another experiment. BAS-125 W sprays at petal fall + 1 and 2 weeks later significantly suppressed % infection by fireblight, Erwinia amylovora, in inoculated shoots. In addition, BAS-125W reduced canker length in the first-year growth in shoots inoculated 2 weeks after treatment.
Strong winds during periods of heavy rainfall in August and Septem ber 1979 either blew over or loosened m any 3- to 5-year-old peach (Prunus persica(L.) Batsch) trees in Northern Virginia. In the spring of 1980, many of these trees grew poorly, failed to produce normal leaves, and in some cases, died.
High-budded trees of nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] that were mechanically planted with the bud union as a depth guide resulted in poorer growth when compared to those planted with the crown roots within 5 cm of the surface. Deeper-planted trees had smaller leaves and less total increase in trunk cross-sectional area, and were more susceptible to the formation of air pockets around their bases.
Fruit of apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Golden Delicious) sprayed with triethanolamine salt of silvex [2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid] (2,4,5-TP), a finely dispersed aluminum oxide (Sun Clear), and potassium salt of a fluorochemical carboxylic acid (L-4749) had better finish than controls. Fruit size and seed numbers were significantly reduced by higher rates of 2,4,5-TP. Sprays of a mixture of anion acrylic polymer binding agents (Acrylocoat), poly-l-p-methen-8-9 diyl (Vapor Guard), and a nonionic dimethyl polysiloxane (Dow Corning Silicone 24) increased russeting on ‘Golden Delicious’ apple fruit. Fruit enclosed in a paper bag 16 days after bloom gave a greater reduction in russet than any spray treatment.
Shallow-planted trees of ‘Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on Mailing (M) 7A and Mailing Merton (MM) 111 rootstock had increased frequency of burr-knots and were less likely to be loosened in the soil by wind than were deep-planted trees. Deep-planted trees on seedling roots were more likely to be loosened by handshaking; however, burrknots were not a problem. Leaf size was larger significantly for all shallow-planted trees. Growth differences were related to soil type, rootstock, and planting depth.
Own-rooted `Redhaven' and `Cresthaven' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] trees and `Redhaven' and `Cresthaven' on Lovell seedling rootstock were planted in fumigated and nonfumigated areas of a site where peach trees previously displayed peach stem-pitting (PSP) symptoms. The combined incidence of stem pitting of the `Redhaven' and `Cresthaven' peach trees was 16% on nonfumigated soil in the 10 years of the study. The combined stem-pitting incidence of own-rooted trees (9.1%) was significantly lower than on Lovell roots (22.1%). Incidence of PSP in the adjacent fumigated areas was relatively low (1% Lovell and 4% own-rooted) and, therefore, precluded a comparison of own-rooted and Lovell-rooted trees. Within affected sections of rows, 67% of the `Cresthaven'/Lovell and 64% of the `Redhaven'/Lovell trees had PSP symptoms, but only 25% of own-rooted `Cresthaven' and 18.8% of own-rooted `Redhaven' trees were symptomatic. Although these data suggest that rooted cuttings of these cultivars may be less susceptible to stem pitting, the use of rooted cuttings does not eliminate fumigation as a means of providing acceptable stem-pitting management in a heavily infested site.
Foliar copper deposits varied by a factor of 5-fold when copper was applied with an airblast sprayer at a rate of 935 liters/ha (100 gallons/acre) to trees of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Higher deposits were recorded as tree size decreased. Chemical deposit was related inversely to percentage of light penetration through the canopy.