`Hedelfingen' and `Lapins' sweet cherries (Prunus avium) were stored in air or in two types of modified atmosphere (MA) bags (LifeSpan 204 and 208) at 3 °C (37.4 °F) and 90% relative humidity for 4 weeks. Various analytical and quality measurements were conducted weekly on `Hedelfingen' cherries, whereas on `Lapins' these were done initially and at the end of 4 weeks. For `Hedelfingen' cherries, there were differences in carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) composition within the MA bags, depending on the bag used. This resulted in slightly better cherry quality for the bag with lower O2 permeability (L204), which equilibrated at 4% to 5% O2 and 7% to 8% CO2. For `Lapins', the two MA bags showed concentrations of 9% to 10% O2 and 8% to 9% CO2 and similar final fruit quality. There was a significant weight loss for the control treatments over time (6% to 13%), whereas the MA treatments showed minimal losses. A higher incidence of cracking and decay was observed in MA treatments of `Hedelfingen' but not in `Lapins'. Control cherries had significant shriveling and browning of stems; MA-stored cherries had green and healthy stems after 4 weeks. No significant differences were observed in pH, acidity, soluble solids, firmness, and hue angle among the storage treatments. MA packaged cherries seemed to maintain better color than control cherries over time. Similarly, MA cherries had better appearance and eating quality after 4 weeks when compared to control cherries.
O.I. Padilla-Zakour, K.S. Tandon and J.M. Wargo
E.A. Baldwin, J.W. Scott, M.A. Einstein, T.M.M. Malundo, B.T. Carr, R.L. Shewfelt and K.S. Tandon
The major components of flavor in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and other fruit are thought to be sugars, acids, and flavor volatiles. Tomato overall acceptability, tomato-like flavor, sweetness, and sourness for six to nine tomato cultivars were analyzed by experienced panels using a nine-point scale and by trained descriptive analysis panels using a 15-cm line scale for sweetness, sourness, three to five aroma and three to seven taste descriptors in three seasons. Relationships between sensory data and instrumental analyses, including flavor volatiles, soluble solids (SS), individual sugars converted to sucrose equivalents (SE), titratable acidity (TA), pH, SS/TA, and SE/TA, were established using correlation and multiple linear regression. For instrumental data, SS/TA, SE/TA, TA, and cis-3-hexenol correlated with overall acceptability (P = 0.05); SE, SE/TA (P≤0.03), geranylacetone, 2+3-methylbutanol and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (P = 0.11) with tomato-like flavor; SE, pH, cis-3-hexenal, trans-2-hexenal, hexanal, cis-3-hexenol, geranylacetone, 2+3-methylbutanol, trans-2 heptenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (P≤0.11) with sweetness; and SS, pH, acetaldehyde, aceton, 2-isobutylthiazole, geranlyacetone, β-ionone, ethanol, hexanal and cis-3-hexenal with sourness (P≤0.15) for experienced or trained panel data. Measurements for SS/TA correlated with overall taste (P=0.09) and SS with astringency, bitter aftertaste, and saltiness (P≤0.07) for trained panel data. In addition to the above mentioned flavor volatiles, methanol and 1-penten-3-one significantly affected sensory responses (P = 0.13) for certain aroma descriptors. Levels of aroma compounds affected perception of sweetness and sourness and measurements of SS showed a closer relationship to sourness, astringency, and bitterness than to sweetness.