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  • Author or Editor: K.R. Baldwin x
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Consumer demand for organically produced food and the desire by many farmers to eliminate chemical fertilizers and pesticides is increasing the need for research and educational programs to support organic farmers. To date, the land-grant universities and the cooperative extension service have been viewed by organic farmers as unresponsive to this need. The primary reason for the unresponsiveness has been inadequate training and resource materials available to extension agents. In 1998, we conducted an intensive training for agriculture agents in North Carolina. Funding was provided by the USDA SARE Professional Development Program. More than 50 agents participated in a series of workshops that were offered together as a graduate course worth four NCSU credits. Much of the training was conducted on the Organic Unit at The Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS), a 100-acre facility dedicated to research and education in organic farming systems. The hands-on training consisted of lectures, demonstrations, field trips, and class exercises. The topic areas included soil biology/ecology; crop rotation; organic nutrient management; composting; cover crop management; organic weed, insect, and disease management; appropriate tillage practices; organic greenhouse management; marketing organic produce; integrating animals into organic crop production systems; delivery systems for disseminating information to organic producers, and; social and community development aspects of sustainable agriculture. Unique features of the workshops were the interdisciplinary approach to teaching them, and the integration of information about interactions between production factors. The training was very well-received and will serve as a model for future extension programming. A training manual, slide sets, extension publications, and a Web site are being created to further support agents as they conduct programming in their own counties.

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More than 50 agents participated in a series of workshops that were offered as in-service training and as a graduate level North Carolina State University (NCSU) course worth four credits. The Organic Unit at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS), a 100-acre (40-ha) facility dedicated to research and education in organic farming systems, served as a home base for training activities. These training activities consisted of lectures, hands-on demonstrations, group discussions, field trips, and class exercises. Two unique features of the workshops were the interdisciplinary, team teaching approach and the emphasis on integration of information about interactions among production practices. This well-received, successful training program will serve as a model for future extension training. A training manual, slide sets, extension publications, and an organic farming web site are being created to provide agents with the resource materials they need to conduct county-based educational programming in organic production systems and enterprises. The model for extension training presented in this report is an effective means for engaging county agents in continuing education and professional development. Interdisciplinary teaching teams allow for a full, integrated treatment of subject matter and present a whole systems perspective to agents. Regularly scheduled, intensive sessions that accommodate busy calendars and utilize time efficiently provide a strong incentive for regular attendance. Awarding graduate level university credit hours for completion of required course work attracts and retains prospective student and agents. Encouragement of active participation by agents through hands-on field activities, open discussion of issues that impact agricultural and rural life, and field trips to view concepts presented in a real world context ensure that educational goals are fulfilled and that active learning takes place. This model should be used in future extension training programs.

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To determine the effects of fruit maturity, storage temperature, and controlled atmosphere (CA) on aroma volatiles, mature-green (MG) and tree-ripe (TR) `Tommy Atkins' mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) were stored for 21 days in air or in CA (5% O2 plus 10% or 25% CO2). The MG fruit were stored at 12 °C and the TR fruit at either 8 or 12 °C. Homogenized mesocarp tissue from fruit that had ripened for 2 days in air at 20 °C after the 21-day storage period was used for aroma volatile analysis. The TR mangoes produced much higher levels of all aroma volatiles except hexanal than did MG fruit. Both MG and TR mangoes stored in 25% CO2 tended to have lower terpene (especially p-cymene) and hexanal concentrations than did those stored in 10% CO2 and air-stored fruit. Acetaldehyde and ethanol levels tended to be higher in TR mangoes from 25% CO2 than in those from 10% CO2 or air storage, especially at 8 °C. Inhibition of volatile production by 25% CO2 was greater in MG than in TR mangoes, and at 8 °C compared to 12 °C for TR fruit. However, aroma volatile levels in TR mangoes from the 25% CO2 treatment were in all cases equal to or greater than those in MG fruit treatments. The results suggest that properly selected atmospheres, which prolong mango shelf life by slowing ripening processes, can allow TR mangoes to be stored or shipped without sacrificing their superior aroma quality.

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Mango fruit, cv. Tommy Atkins, were harvested from two grove sites in south Florida at mature green (MG) and tree ripe (TR) maturities. The fruit were either coated with one of two coatings (NS = Nature Seal® 4000, a polysaccharide coating, or CW = carnauba wax) or left uncoated (control) and stored in humidified air or held in a controlled atmosphere (CA = 5% O2 plus 25% CO2) at 12 °C for 21 days followed by 2 days in air at 20 °C. There were 12 fruit for each treatment/maturity stage combination replicated by grove site. After storage, the pulp was homogenized for later consumer or descriptive panel analysis. Measurements for total soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), and flavor volatile compounds were also made. TR-harvested fruit were sweeter and generally more aromatic than MG-fruit as determined by sensory and/or chemical analysis. NS-coated fruit were more sour, bitter, and astringent compared to controls and CA-treated fruit. NS-coated fruit received lower overall consumer scores than CW-coated fruit, but were not different from controls or CA-treated fruit. This was reflected also in descriptive panel ratings. There were no differences based on storage treatment for SS, pH, or TA; however, NS-coated fruit were higher in acetaldehyde, methanol and ethanol compared to control or CA-treated fruit. Correlation and regression analysis showed significant relationships between sensory and chemical data.

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Varying the cellulose component of coating formulations affected the survival of two yeast biocontrol agents, Candida guillermondii (Castelani) Langeron and Guerra strain US7 and Debaryomyces sp. strain 230, when these yeasts were incorporated into the coating. Using methylcellulose as the main film-former gave the most recovery of the yeasts after an incubation period for both strains. Significant control of decay on naturally infected `Pineapple' and `Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] was demonstrated for US7 in a methylcellulose-based coating for the first 2 to 4 weeks of storage at 16C and 90% relative humidity. During this time, US7 in methylcellulose formulations was similar in decay control to a commercial shellac coating with imazalil at 2000 mg·liter–1. A US7 concentration of at least 105 colony-forming units/cm was maintained on the coated fruit surface of `Valencia' oranges for 3 weeks of storage. Suppression of decay by US7 was improved by the addition of glucose and calcium chloride to the coating formulation. Although nearly equal in concentration recovered, Debaryomyces strain 230 was not as effective as US7 in disease suppression of `Pineapple' oranges. The addition of US7 to Nature Seal, a coating material made with methylcellulose, had neither a quantitative nor a qualitative effect on the pathogen population compared to the same formulation without the antagonist. Chemical name used: 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl]-1H-imidazole (imazalil).

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The use of glyphosate-tolerant perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) (PRG) cultivars JS501 and Replay provides turfgrass managers a unique option for annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) (ABG) control. Both cultivars can tolerate a maximum glyphosate rate of 0.81 kg·ha−1 acid equivalent (a.e.) after establishment under optimal growing temperatures (16 to 24 °C). However, tolerance to applications made immediately after germination and during low air temperatures has received limited investigation. Therefore, objectives of this research were to determine the seedling tolerance and low-temperature response after a fall season glyphosate application to both cultivars. Field trials were conducted in Idaho and Oregon. For the fall application response trial in Idaho, glyphosate was applied at 0, 0.15, 0.29, 0.58, 1.16, 1.74, 2.32, and 3.48 kg·ha−1 a.e. In Oregon, glyphosate was applied at 0, 0.15, 0.29, 0.44, 0.58, 1.16, and 3.48 kg·ha−1 a.e. At both sites, applications were made between late September and early October. To determine seedling tolerance, both cultivars were sprayed with glyphosate at the one-leaf stage (LS), two LS, three LS, or four LS at rates of 0, 0.15, 0.29, and 0.58 kg·ha−1 a.e. Across all trials, ratings included PRG color, cover, and injury. At both trial locations, regression analysis revealed a rate of ≈0.27 kg·ha−1 a.e. was required to cause 20% leaf firing in the fall application response trial. In the seedling tolerance trial, glyphosate applied at 0.58 kg·ha−1 a.e. at the one LS, two LS, and three LS had color ratings 8.0 or greater; however, color ratings dropped to 4.6 when an application was made at the four LS. Based on the environmental conditions of each trial, results suggest glyphosate applications greater than 0.27 kg·ha−1 a.e. as minimum air temperatures approach 0 °C should be avoided. Also, applications should be avoided at the three to four LS if the application rate is greater than 0.29 kg·ha−1 a.e.

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Traditional hollow-tine (HT) aerification programs can cause substantial damage to the putting green surface resulting in prolonged recovery. Despite the growing interest in new and alternative aerification technology, there is a lack of information in the literature comparing new or alternative technology with traditional methods on ultradwarf bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis (Burtt-Davy)] putting greens. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the best combination of dry-injection (DI) cultivation technology with modified traditional HT aerification programs to achieve minimal surface disruption without a compromise in soil physical properties. Research was conducted at the Mississippi State University golf course practice putting green from 1 June to 31 Aug. 2014 and 2015. Treatments included two HT sizes (0.6 and 1.3 cm diameter), various DI cultivation frequencies applied with a DryJect 4800, and a noncultivated control. The HT 1.3 cm diameter tine size had 76% greater water infiltration (7.6 cm depth) compared with the DI + HT 0.6 cm diameter tine size treatment. However, DI + HT 0.6 cm diameter tine size had greater water infiltration at the 10.1 cm depth than the noncultivated control. Results suggest a need for an annual HT aerification event due to reduced water infiltration and increased volumetric water content (VWC) in the noncultivated control treatment. It can be concluded that DI would be best used in combination with HT 1.3 or 0.6 cm diameter tine sizes to improve soil physical properties; however, the DI + HT 0.6 cm diameter tine size treatment resulted in minimum surface disruption while still improving soil physical properties compared with the noncultivated control.

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The major components of flavor in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and other fruit are thought to be sugars, acids, and flavor volatiles. Tomato overall acceptability, tomato-like flavor, sweetness, and sourness for six to nine tomato cultivars were analyzed by experienced panels using a nine-point scale and by trained descriptive analysis panels using a 15-cm line scale for sweetness, sourness, three to five aroma and three to seven taste descriptors in three seasons. Relationships between sensory data and instrumental analyses, including flavor volatiles, soluble solids (SS), individual sugars converted to sucrose equivalents (SE), titratable acidity (TA), pH, SS/TA, and SE/TA, were established using correlation and multiple linear regression. For instrumental data, SS/TA, SE/TA, TA, and cis-3-hexenol correlated with overall acceptability (P = 0.05); SE, SE/TA (P≤0.03), geranylacetone, 2+3-methylbutanol and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (P = 0.11) with tomato-like flavor; SE, pH, cis-3-hexenal, trans-2-hexenal, hexanal, cis-3-hexenol, geranylacetone, 2+3-methylbutanol, trans-2 heptenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (P≤0.11) with sweetness; and SS, pH, acetaldehyde, aceton, 2-isobutylthiazole, geranlyacetone, β-ionone, ethanol, hexanal and cis-3-hexenal with sourness (P≤0.15) for experienced or trained panel data. Measurements for SS/TA correlated with overall taste (P=0.09) and SS with astringency, bitter aftertaste, and saltiness (P≤0.07) for trained panel data. In addition to the above mentioned flavor volatiles, methanol and 1-penten-3-one significantly affected sensory responses (P = 0.13) for certain aroma descriptors. Levels of aroma compounds affected perception of sweetness and sourness and measurements of SS showed a closer relationship to sourness, astringency, and bitterness than to sweetness.

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Abstract

Foliar ozone sensitivity evaluations of 5 fresh market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars from fumigation experiments were contrasted with field trial yields at Riverside, California, a high ambient dose location (3798 pphm-hour > 10 pphm). Foliar injury was not an accurate indicator of yield response as a correlation of foliar susceptibility and yield rankings was insignificant. Cultivar production characteristics at the South Coast Field Station (222 pphm-hour > 10 pphm) and at Riverside were identical with standardized field plots of ‘6718 VF’ from a concurrent experiment. Reduced fruit size and depressed early season production, previously correlated with ozone dose, were characteristic of all cultivars planted at Riverside. Comparisons of cultivar production rankings revealed that ‘H-ll’ and ‘6718 VF’ yielded significantly more, in terms of weight and number of fruit harvested than ‘Ace’, ‘Polepak’, or ‘Earlypak 7’. All cultivars except ‘Ace’ produced equivalent yields in terms of weight at South Coast Field Station.

Open Access

Abstract

A multiple regression analysis of yields of ‘6718 VF’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) from 11 field plots along an ambient ozone gradient in southern California indicated that ozone was responsible for a significant reduction in fruit size. Ozone dose accounted for 85% of the reduction in fruit size and was at least 3.3 times more important than any of the monitored meteorological variables in predicting the percentage of marketable fruit. High ambient ozone depressed production and caused a significant decrease in fruit size over time. A model describing the reduction in marketing container yield (% reduction = 0 + (.0232 x dose)) predicted a 50% reduction at a dose of 2000 pphm-hours > 10 pphm.

Open Access