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C.A. Weber, K.E. Maloney and J.C. Sanford

The performance of 11 primocane fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivars was evaluated based on yield and fruit weight from the first three seasons compared to the eighth and ninth seasons, respectively. Plot vigor and cane density was evaluated in the eighth season. `Prelude', `Caroline', and `Heritage' did not show a decline in yield in the eighth season compared to the first three seasons. `Kiwigold', `Graton Gold' (sold as `Goldie'), `Watson' (sold as `Ruby'), `Autumn Bliss', `Anne, and `Amity' had substantial yield decreases from early production seasons ranging from -30% to -82%. `Kiwigold' had the highest yield of 4015 kg·ha-1 (3582.2 lb/acre) in the eighth season followed by `Caroline' at 3649 kg·ha-1 (3255.6 lb/acre), `Heritage' at 3614 kg·ha-1 (3224.4 lb/acre), and `Prelude' at 3591 kg·ha-1 (3203.9 lb/acre). Fruit weight did not vary significantly among years, but there were differences among cultivars. In the ninth season, `Ruby' had the largest fruit at 3.1 g (0.11 oz), followed by `Autumn Bliss' at 2.9 g (0.10 oz), and `Caroline' and `Prelude' at 2.8 g (0.10 oz). `Summit', `Goldie', and `Rossana' had the smallest fruit at 1.5 g (0.05 oz). `Goldie' was the most vigorous cultivar and `Anne' the least in the eighth season based on vigor ratings. `Rossana' had the highest cane density at 41.6 canes/m2 (3.86 canes/ft2). Seven of 11 cultivars had cane density of 32 canes/m2 (3.0 canes/ft2) or higher, which is sufficient to produce acceptable yields in cultivars suited to the region. Overall, `Prelude', `Caroline' and `Heritage' and its sports, `Kiwigold' and `Goldie', show the most potential for long production cycles in climates similar to western New York state.

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Julie A. Russell, Mihir K. Roy and John C. Sanford

The biolistics process uses high velocity microprojectiles to carry foreign DNA into cells. Though biolistics has already proven to be useful fo r a wide range of species, improvements are still needed, and many of the factors which affect transformation efficiency have not been defined. In our experiments, cell suspensions of Nicotiana tabacum (NT1 line) were used as a model to identify these factors. The most critical factors for high efficiency transformation were: cell age, microprojectile type & size, DNA construct, osmoticum in the bombardment medium, use of a new helium-driven biolistic device, and the handling and growth environment of the cells after bombardment. By optimizing these factors, an average of 7,000 transiently expressing GUS cells and 800 kanamycin resistant colonies were obtained per bombarded plate. The high efficiency and rapid results (2 days transient/4 weeks stable) of the NT1 model system make it useful for cell biology studies and for testing DNA constructs.

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C.A. Weber, K.E. Maloney and J.C. Sanford

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C.A. Weber, K.E. Maloney and J.C. Sanford

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P. Allan-Wojtas, K.A. Sanford, K.B. McRae and S. Carbyn

The apple industry worldwide would benefit from an improved and standardized description of fresh-apple textural quality. The description proposed here is unique in that it integrates structural, sensory, and consumer information. To demonstrate its benefits, 24 apple cultivars [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh..) Mansf.] were sampled over two harvest seasons and analyzed using microstructural and sensory techniques. Cultivars were selected to cover a range of known sensory textures, and microstructural profiles were compiled in parallel with sensory and instrumental studies. Each cultivar was pre pared for conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation using standard methods. Representative fruit from each cultivar were photographed at three magnifications to visualize fruit architecture, tissue relationships, and size, shape, and arrangement of cells within layers to compile the microstructural profile. A trained sensory panel evaluated the cultivars for crispness, surface coarseness, sponginess, hardness, juiciness, degree of melting, mealiness, and skin toughness while a consumer panel rated liking. This information was compiled into a texture profile. The microstructural and texture profiles were then combined into a cultivar profile for each sample. Cultivar profiles were collected to form a database; subtle similarities and differences among the 28 market-quality samples were interpreted and noted. With this technique, those structures with similar sensory properties can be identified with some form of microscopy. Clarifying and predicting the parameters that are related to textural quality in new cultivars will streamline the introduction process.

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K.A. Sanford, P.D. Lidster, K.B. McRae, E.D. Jackson, R.A. Lawrence, R. Stark and R.K. Prange

Postharvest response of wild lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. and V. myrtilloides Michx.) to mechanical damage and storage temperature was studied during 2 years. Fruit weight loss and the incidence of shriveled or split berries were major components that contributed to the loss of marketable yield resulting from mechanical damage and storage temperature. Decay of berries resulted in only 1% to 2% of the total marketable fruit loss. In general, the major quality attributes (firmness, microbial growth, hue, bloom, split, and unblemished berries) deteriorated with increasing damage levels and increasing storage temperature without significant interaction. Temperature had consistent effects in both years on moisture content, soluble solids concentration, titratable acids, weight loss, shriveled and decayed berries, Hunter L values, and anthocyanin leakage, while damage level had inconsistent or no significant effect.

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A.R. Jamieson, N.L. Nickerson, C.F. Forney, K.A. Sanford and D.L. Craig

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A.R. Jamieson, N.L. Nickerson, C.F. Forney, K.A. Sanford, K.R. Sanderson, J.-P. Privé and R.J.A. Tremblay

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A.R. Jamieson, N.L. Nickerson, C.F. Forney, K.A. Sanford, K.R. Sanderson, J.-P. Privé, R.J.A. Tremblay and P. Hendrickson