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  • Author or Editor: K. Haghighi x
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Restriction fragment analyses of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were carried out on the principal cytoplasms of northern highbush cultivars and one representative of Vaccinium ashei Reade. Twenty-three restriction enzymes were used to identify variation and clarify mode of organelle inheritance. All species and genotypes displayed identical cpDNA fragment patterns, but high degrees of polymorphism were observed in the mitochondrial genomes. `Bluecrop' and `Jersey' did not appear to have `Rubel' cytoplasm as was previously believed. All hybrids contained maternal-type mtDNA.

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Leaf explants from shoot-proliferating cultures of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) produced shoots on one-half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 5, 25, 50, or 100 μmol of 2iP. The highest number of meristematic nodules and buds per leaf were induced at 25 μmol 2iP and the least at 5 or 100 μmol. Nodule, bud, and shoot regeneration was significantly increased by wounding the leaf explants. Chemical name used: 6(γ-γ-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP).

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Seven highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars were evaluated for their photosynthetic heat stability. Ail showed significant reductions in CO2 assimilation rates (A) as leaf temperatures were raised from 20 to 30C, although `Blue-crop', `Jersey', `Elliot', and `Rubel' (22% to - 27%) were significantly less affected than Spartan', `Bluejay', and `Patriot' (-41% to -51%). To determine whether temperature adaptations of highbush types can be broadened through hybridization with native, heat-tolerant species, `Bluecrop' was crossed with the V. darrowi Camp. selection Florida 4B, and F2, BC1, and BC2, populations were generated. This approach showed promise as genotypes were identified in all the derivative populations that were more heat tolerant than `Bluecrop' and had a high A.

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Twenty-one western and 13 eastern strawberry [Fragaria × ananassa (Duch.)] cultivars were grown in a polyethylene-covered greenhouse (polyhouse) in deep beds at either 10 × 10 or 25 × 25 cm spacing. Runners were removed weekly from the closest-spaced plants (hills), and the more open-spaced plants were allowed to set four runners on each side of the mother plant before the runners were removed (matted rows). Temperatures were allowed to fluctuate normally in the polyhouse, except that winter temperatures were maintained above 0C. The average yield of eastern and western cultivars did not differ significantly in most comparisons, but the average fruit weight of the Californian cultivars was significantly higher than the eastern ones, and Californian cultivars allocated a higher proportion of their biomass to reproduction. Nonbearing plants of eastern and western cultivars produced similar numbers of runners per plant and daughters per runner. There was no significant relationship between CO2 assimilation rate and yield. Interbreeding eastern cultivars with the most productive western genotypes might result in increased yields, but only if the higher reproductive efforts of the western types can be captured and transferred.

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