Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jyotsna Sharma* x
Clear All Modify Search
Author:

Because of thousands of years of adaptation to the native climate, prairie forbs (“wildflowers”) present a large potential for their use in beautification projects along roadsides, in large backyards, and in nature centers. Vegetation in abandoned, naturally revegetated, grass-dominated areas can be managed to encourage a forb-dominated stage. Two grass herbicides [sethoxydim (PoastTM) and fluazifop (Ornamec-170TM)], three burning treatments (winter, early spring, and late spring), and two mowing treatments (fall and late spring) were tested to determine their effect on forb cover and species diversity in a mid-successional tallgrass prairie. One application of either of the herbicides, at the time of recommended growth stage of target grasses, changed species composition significantly (80% forbs vs. 46% forbs in control plots; P < 0.05) in favor of showy forbs. Species diversity of sprayed plots was relatively low, however. Burning was the next best alternative (averaging 63% forbs) that also resulted in highest species diversity. Fall and late spring mowing reduced cover of forbs (32%) and species diversity to levels lower than those found in control plots. Cover of Solidago canadensis (tall goldenrod) in sethoxydim-treated plots increased to 22.8% compared to 2.5% in control plots. Cirsium discolor (pasture thistle) and Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed susan) also increased significantly in response to herbicide treatments.

Free access
Authors: and

Plants infected with Meloidogyne spp. (root-knot nematodes) often are stunted and lose aesthetic value due to chlorosis, wilting, and leaf margin necrosis. We assessed reproduction of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on five plant taxa native to the southeastern U.S. The plant taxa included were: Hydrangea quercifolia `Oakleaf', Viburnum obovatum `Densa', Itea virginica `Little Henry', Illicium parviflorum, and Clethra alnifolia `Ruby Spice'. Three commonly grown non-native shrubs, Ligustrum japonicum `Texanum', Ilexcrenata `Compacta', and Buxus microphylla `Wintergem', also were included in the study to serve as susceptible, positive controls. Highest gall rating (10) was observed on roots of I. crenata `Compacta' infected with M. incognita, but highest number of eggs (6397 eggs/g of roots) was observed in plants of this cultivar inoculated with M. javanica. Few or no galls were observed on roots of the five native plant taxa, and nematode eggs were recovered only from roots of I. virginica `Little Henry' inoculated with M. arenaria and M. javanica (13 and 20 eggs/g of roots, respectively). Fresh weights of shoots or roots were not affected by nematode inoculation. Due to lack of root gall development and little or no reproduction on the native taxa, we conclude that these are resistant or immune to the three species of Meloidogyne and might be suitable for planting in infested soil.

Free access

Rhamnus alnifolia and Rhamnus lanceolata are shrubs of modest size with lustrous foliage. We evaluated seed germination of both species and propagated R. alnifolia by using softwood cuttings collected in early June. For R. alnifolia, cold stratification for up to 90 d resulted in 48% germination and a germination value of 1.9, whereas only 7% germination occurred among seeds stratified for 120 d. Seeds of R. alnifolia did not germinate if they were untreated or if scarified and stratified. Rhamnus lanceolata required 120 d of stratification to germinate, but percentages were low (≤ 5). Survival of germinants of both species was 90 to 100% regardless of prior seed treatment. Seedlings grew uniformly and had a mean leaf count of 11 and a mean height of 20 cm after 102 d. Application of 3000 and 8000 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in talc led to 85% rooting of R. alnifolia, whereas rooting was ≤ 15% after use of solutions with those IBA concentrations. While 75% of untreated cuttings rooted, fewer roots formed without IBA. More roots developed in 100% vermiculite than in 1 vermiculite: 1 perlite (by volume), which also diminished the number and apparent health of leaves on cuttings during the rooting period. We conclude that talc-based IBA and vermiculite should be used to root softwood cuttings of R. alnifolia, and that both species can be propagated from stratified seeds. Rhamnus lanceolata is more recalcitrant than is R. alnifolia and merits further study to optimize germination success.

Free access

Tolerance of shade, flooding, drought, and nutrient-poor substrate is desirable among ornamental plants installed in managed landscapes. Many attractive native taxa have not been evaluated for their resistance to environmental stressors. We assessed Florida corkwood (Leitneria floridana Chapman) in its natural habitat in four disjunct populations in the United States and tested the physical and chemical properties of the soil at the study sites. Measures at all sites were made within two weeks in late June, 2003. Leaf area, plant height, length of new shoots, and the rate of photosynthesis were higher among plants receiving more than 600 μmol·m-2·s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) compared to plants that occurred where maximum PAR was lower. Soil texture ranged from clay loam to fine sand, and soil pH across sites was 4.5 to 6.6. Concentration of nitrate-nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium ranged from 3 to 75 mg·L-1, 7 to 11 mg·L-1, and 3 to 64 mg·L-1, respectively. Bases of plants in Florida were submersed in water, while soil moisture percentages in Missouri and Texas were 6 to 30. The apparent tolerance of L. floridana to shade, low and high soil moisture, and nutrient-poor soil in native habitats indicates that it could be used in a wide range of managed landscapes. Its capacity to adapt to shade may permit the use of L. floridana as an understory species in managed landscapes, but stewards of natural areas may need to maintain open sites within its native habitat to allow expansion of populations. Because this assessment of L. floridana included native populations across the natural range of the species, our results are uniquely suited for both horticultural and ecological interpretation and application.

Free access

We propagatedsixyellow-flowered cultivars of Magnolia vegetatively by applying 0, 8, 16, or 30 g·kg-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in talc to bases of terminal stem cuttings collected 5, 7, 9, or 11 weeks after budbreak. Mean rooting percentage increased from 12% (in the absence of IBA) to 34% (after applying 30 g·kg-1 IBA). Rooting percentage also increased with increasing basal caliper (r 2 = 0.25; P< 0.0001) of a cutting. For each collection date, more cuttings of `Ivory Chalice' and `Yellow Lantern' developed roots than did other cultivars. When data were analyzed separately for selected cultivars, 63% rooting was observed among cuttings of `Ivory Chalice' collected 7 weeks after budbreak. Rooting percentage was higher (22%) among cuttings of `Hot Flash' collected 5 or 7 weeks after budbreak in comparison to later collection dates, but harvest date did not influence rooting, which ranged from 44% to 59%, among cuttings of `Yellow Lantern'. Collection of stem cuttings early in the growing season (5 weeks after budbreak) was beneficial (31% rooting) for inducing root formation among cuttings of `Golden Sun'. We conclude that `Ivory Chalice' and `Yellow Lantern' are promising choices for growers interested in clonal propagation of yellow-flowered cultivars of Magnolia. To maximize rooting, terminal cuttings should be collected within 5 to 11 weeks after budbreak and should be treated with 16 or 30 g·kg-1 IBA in talc. Early collection dates improved rooting frequencies among cuttings of other cultivars but these, particularly `Butterflies', remain variably recalcitrant and merit further study.

Free access

Attributes of Leitneria floridana Chapman have been recognized, but this North American shrub remains rare in commerce, and little information on propagation is available. We studied germination of seeds collected from several disjunct populations of L. floridana in 2002 and 2003. In 2002, ≤5% germination occurred when ripe drupes from Missouri and Florida were sown soon after collection. Effects of GA3 (750 mg·L-1 for 24 hours) were assessed on stored drupes leached with water and on seeds excised from stored drupes. Germination percentages were 21 and 32 for leached drupes and excised seeds from Florida, respectively, but ≤5% germination occurred among germplasm from Missouri and among untreated drupes from both provenances. Viability of ungerminated seeds among treatments ranged from 0% to 7%. In 2003, fleshy, apparently unripe drupes from Texas, which were scarified with H2SO4 and then treated with 1000 mg·L-1 GA3 showed 48% germination (germination value = 3.9). Up to 29% germination (germination value = 2.7) occurred when seeds were excised from unripe drupes from Arkansas and Missouri and then were treated for 24 hours with 750 or 1000 mg·L-1 GA3. We conclude that provenance, developmental stage of drupes when collected, storage, and pregermination treatments influence viability and germination of seeds of L. floridana. Barriers to germination may be avoided by collecting drupes when they are green and fleshy.

Free access

Perennial wildflowers, once established, are a low-maintenance alternative in a flowerbed. However, water stress and poor root development in field soil can be detrimental to young plants at the time of transplanting. A fully expanded hydrogel, HydroSource, was incorporated to replace 0% (control), 7.5%, 15% (recommended rate), and 30% of the volume of a clayey field soil to determine its effect on plant water status. Addition of hydrogel reduced water stress in Asclepias incarnata and Gaillardia grandiflora plants. Plants growing in hydrogel amended soil had: 1) significantly lower stomatal resistance (P < 0.01); and 2) significantly higher leaf water potential (P < 0.01). Gaillardia grandiflora control plants showed considerable wilting (reflected in high stomatal resistance and low water potential readings) on the 3rd day of the drought period while those with 15% and 30% hydrogel were turgid even on the 5th day. Hydrogel-amended soil appeared less compacted, and root growth in Asclepias incarnata increased with the increasing rate of hydrogel added to the soil.

Free access

Certain cultivars of magnolia are desirable in landscapes for their uncommon yellow flowers. While cultivars derived from Magnolia acuminata L. (cucumbertree magnolia) are difficult to propagate by stem cuttings, some with mixed parentage appear easier to propagate in this manner. We propagated six yellow-flowered cultivars vegetatively by applying 0, 8, 16, or 30 g·kg–1 (0, 8,000, 16,000, or 30,000 ppm) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in talc to bases of terminal stem cuttings collected 5, 7, 9, or 11 weeks after budbreak. Mean rooting percentage over all cultivars increased from 12% (in the absence of IBA) to 34% (after application of 30 g·kg–1 IBA). Rooting percentage and basal stem diameter of a cutting did not seem related. For each collection date, more cuttings of `Ivory Chalice' and `Yellow Lantern' developed roots than the other cultivars. More roots (mean = 5) developed on cuttings of `Yellow Lantern' collected 5 weeks after budbreak or when treated with 30 g·kg–1 IBA than the other cultivars. `Butterflies' largely remained unresponsive, whereas rooting of `Golden Sun,' `Hot Flash,' and `Maxine Merrill' collected 5 weeks after budbreak was 31%, 22%, and 28%, respectively. When data were analyzed separately for selected cultivars, 63% rooting was observed among cuttings of `Ivory Chalice' collected 7 weeks after budbreak. Rooting percentage was higher (22%) among cuttings of `Hot Flash' collected 5 or 7 weeks after budbreak in comparison to later collection dates, but harvest date did not influence rooting of `Yellow Lantern,' which ranged from 44% to 59%. Collection of stem cuttings early in the growing season (5 weeks after budbreak) was beneficial (31% rooting) for inducing rooting among cuttings of `Golden Sun.' We conclude that `Ivory Chalice' and `Yellow Lantern' are promising choices for growers interested in clonal propagation of yellow-flowered cultivars of magnolia. To maximize rooting among these cultivars, terminal cuttings should be collected within 5 to 11 weeks after budbreak and treated with 16 or 30 g·kg–1 IBA in talc. Early collection dates (5 to 7 weeks after budbreak) improved rooting among cuttings of other cultivars but these, particularly `Butterflies,' remain variably recalcitrant and merit further study.

Free access