The volatile-producing fungus Muscodoralbus is being developed as a biological fumigant for postharvest use, as it can kill storage pathogens and control fungal decay in various commodities. A wettable pad or sachet system made of teabag paper containing desiccated rye grain culture of M. albus was designed for the biofumigation of individual fruit containers. The fungus is reactivated before use by a brief immersion of the pad in water. This research was conducted to determine the potential of the pad system for controlling decay of table grapes in commercial cartons. Individual pads containing 24 or 86 g of grain culture (to achieve a 1:10 ratio of fumigant to box volume or a 1:100 ratio of fumigant to fruit weight, respectively) were added to Styrofoam cartons containing 8.6 kg of freshly harvested `Thompson Seedless' (TS) or `Ruby Seedless' (RS) grapes, which were then placed in cold storage at –1 to 0 °C. Control cartons exposed to SO2 were placed in a separate storage room and SO2 fumigation was performed once for TS and weekly for RS. After 8 to 9 weeks, the grapes were taken out of storage and rated for decay. In the experiment with TS, the 24-g and 86-g pads provided significant control of gray mold rot when compared to untreated cartons and were not statistically different from cartons exposed to a single SO2 fumigation. In the experiment with RS, only the 86-g pads provided significant decay control. Measurements of the three most abundant volatile compounds in empty cartons containing 10 g of the biofumigant revealed that partial coverage of holes mimicking obstruction by packed fruit achieved levels of isobutyl alcohol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and isobutyric acid of 0.7, 1.6, and 11.2 ppb, respectively.
Julien Mercier, Paul Walgenbach and Jorge I. Jiménez
Julien Mercier, Mebarek Baka, Baskhara Reddy, Ronan Corcuff and Joseph Arul
Shortwave ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) was tested for controlling natural infections and inducing resistance to fungal decay caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (gray mold rot) in bell pepper [Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum (Grossum Group)] fruit. All UV-C doses tested (0.22, 0.44, 0.88, or 2.20 kJ·m-2) caused a reduction in the number of natural infections occurring during storage at 13 °C. A UV-C dose of 0.88 kJ·m-2 controlled most effectively natural infections in peppers stored at both 13 or 20 °C. Although UV-C was found to be highly germicidal to B. cinerea conidia exposed on agar or on fruit wounds, it did not prevent infection of fruit inoculated with the pathogen 24 hours before exposure to UV-C. However, fruit which were exposed to UV-C 24 hours before inoculation with B. cinerea had a lower percentage of infections. For this reason, UV-C appears to act mainly as an inducer of disease resistance in this crop rather than a sanitizing agent. UV-C was effective in inducing resistance to B. cinerea in fruit at various stages of maturity, from green to red. Disease resistance was also induced in fruit which had been stored for 7 days before UV-C treatment. The effect of UV-C doses was found to be additive as two successive exposures at 0.44 kJ·m-2 had an equivalent effect as one exposure to the optimal dose of 0.88 kJ·m-2. However, two successive exposures to 0.88 kJ·m-2 were less effective than one exposure to this dose.