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  • Author or Editor: Julian C. Crane x
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Abstract

Production of blank nuts in ‘Kerman’ pistachio was the result of both parthenocarpy and seed abortion, the latter being responsible for the major portion. The degree of parthenocarpy was relatively uniform throughout the entire tree population, but seed abortion varied according to the history of blank production of the individual trees. Production of blanks, therefore, appeared to be governed by the seedling rootstocks.

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Abstract

Kernel dry weight and crude fat accumulation, as well as shell dehiscence and change in shell color, all indicated that the nut of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is physiologically mature at the time the hull separates easily from the shell. Harvesting prior to or after that critical point resulted in undeveloped kernels or in stained and unattractive shells, respectively. The data indicate that nuts of highest quality may be obtained by harvesting within a period of about one week.

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Abstract

During a 4-year period, ‘Kerman’ pistachio trees (Pistacia vera) produced an average of 26% blank nuts. Production of blanks by individual trees remained relatively constant from year to year and was not associated with yield or position of the trees in relation to pollinators. Blank production was also found to be a characteristic of P. atlantica Desf. and P. chinensis Bunge. Results demonstrated that production of blanks, at least in ‘Kerman’, is partly the result of parthenocarpy.

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The phenomenon of abscission in plants is influenced by several environmental factors (1). Leaf abscission in deciduous trees, for example, is associated with short photoperiods. Also, temperature, moisture, and mineral supply have all been noted to influence the abscission process. Environmental factors appear to act through their effects on the synthesis, utilization and/or depletion of nutrient substrates and hormones within the plant. Addicott (2) recently reviewed the evidence pointing to the fact that, in addition to hormones, soluble nutrients are important regulatory factors of abscission. They serve as substrates for synthesis of the hormones and are involved in the maintenance of chemical equilibria within the plant.

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Abstract

This subject has been reviewed periodically by Nitsch (60) in 1953, Luckwill (53) in 1959, Leopold (47) in 1962, and lastly by Crane (19) in 1964. It has been pointed out repeatedly that the seeds in fruits are rich sources particularly of auxins, but also of gibberellins and cytokinins as well. Various types of evidence would indicate that these hormones emanating from the seeds stimulate growth of the fruit tissues surrounding them and also control fruit abscission. For example, in many fruits marked correlations exist between seed number and ultimate fruit size and also between seed distribution and fruit shape. Fruits that absciss prematurely are usually multi-seeded ones with a lower seed content than normal, or are single or multi-seeded fruits in which the seeds abort.

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Abstract

Radial trunk growth measured by the Verner dendrometer was reduced markedly due to competition for assimilates and water by greatly stimulated fruit growth resulting from the application of 2,4-D. These responses were accompanied by reduced water tension within the 2,4-D-treated trees, as indicated by less diurnal trunk shrinkage than that which occurred in control trees.

Open Access

Abstract

The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), characteristically a biennial bearer, produces its most extensive shoot growth in years of heavy crop production. Whereas levels of total sugars in bark and wood of bearing and nonbearing branches were similar throughout the year, starch levels tended generally to be higher in nonbearing than in bearing branches. Consequently, nonbearing branches one year gave rise to heavy crops the next and, beacuse of greater quantities of reserve foods, also produced extensive shoot growth. Bearing branches of that same year, .however, produced few or no nuts the next and, because of lesser quantities of reserve foods, produced markedly less shoot growth. No relationship between total nitrogen level and shoot growth or fruiting was evident.

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Abstract

Concentrations of several mineral elements in leaflets of Pistacia vera L. cv. Kerman, did not differ significantly with leaflet position. Thus, leaflets may be used instead of whole leaves in leaf sampling. Analyses of leaflets indicated that N, P, and Zn concn were relatively high initially. They then dropped rapidly during leaf expansion, reaching a steady state in early summer. Manganese increased from an initially low level and then remained fairly constant. Potassium, Mg, Cl, and B behaved similarly to Mn, but reached constant levels later in the season. Leaves from bearing branches were lower in N and P, but higher in K than leaves from nonbearing branches. It is recommended, in determining mineral element status, that leaves from nonbearing branches be sampled during the month prior to harvest, as most elements are then at a steady state.

Open Access

Abstract

Neither abscisic acid (ABA) levels in developing kernels nor in the developing inflorescence buds themselves were found to be related to abscission of inflorescence buds and consequent alternate bearing in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

Open Access

Abstract

During the first 5 years of production, significantly greater yields of pistachios were obtained with the ‘Kerman’ on seedlings identified as Pistacia atlantica Desf. than with ‘Kerman’ on seedlings of P. palaestina Boiss., P. terebinthus L., or P. vera L. The least productive combination was ‘Kerman’ on P. vera, the species that produces the edible pistachio nut. Weight per nut, percent blank nuts, and percent nuts with split shells did not differ significantly among the rootstock combinations.

Open Access