Dwarf pomegranate (Punica granatum L. ‘Nana’) flowered under photoperiods of 8 to 24 hours, but flowering was greatest under short daylength. Vegetative growth increased as daylength increased from 8 to 24 hours.
Our celebration of the 75th anniversary of the American Society for Horticultural Science is an appropriate time to reflect on the past three-quarters of a century, review our record, and hopefully to revel in our accomplishments. As George Santayana has stated, “Those who can't remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” Still it is reasonable to ask ourselves if our profession — Horticultural Science — is really only 75 years old? I think not. It is surely much older. My thesis is that horticulture takes us back to the beginning of man's rendevous with civilization.
‘Aurore’ grapevines (Vitis X sp.) were propagated by softwood cuttings on May 1 and 15, June 22, and July 20, 1981 and field-planted that year on June 9 and 25, July 20, and Aug. 12, respectively. Plants were harvested in late fall, over-wintered bare root in 5°C common storage, planted in pots, and forced in an 18° minimum night temperature greenhouse at 2-week intervals from Jan. 29 to March 12, 1982. Forced plants produced from cuttings planted in the field in June flowered and produced attractive fruit clusters but July- and August-planted cuttings produced few or no inflorescences.
Advanced agricultural and horticultural systems are a feature of pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas. Practically all of the crops that originated in the New World were domesticated before European incursions. Thus, the New World crops currently grown in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Oceania should be considered as a contribution of indigenous cultures of the Americas to humanity. The history of these indigenous crops can be found in the written post-Columbian record of explorers, correspondents, travelers, and botanists. It can also be traced in the iconographic record derived from pre-Columbian artifacts, illustrated manuscripts, herbals, paintings, and sculpture. This information is particularly useful for such fields as taxonomy, genetics, crop domestication, crop evolution, and genetic diversity. Major New World crops to be reviewed include grains and pseudograins (amaranth, maize, quinoa), legumes (common bean, lima beans, peanut), cucurbits (chayote, pumpkins, squash), solanaceous fruits (capsicum peppers, husk tomato, pepino, tomato), starchy roots and tubers (cassava, potato, sweetpotato), fruit and nuts (blueberry, brambles, cactus pear, cashew, papaya, pineapple, strawberry), beverage crops (cacao, mate), ornamentals (dahlia, fuchsia, sunflower), and industrial crops (cotton, Pará rubber, tobacco).