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  • Author or Editor: Juanxu Liu x
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Syngonium podophyllum ‘White Butterfly’, one of the most popular ornamental foliage plants, is propagated almost exclusively through in vitro shoot culture. Ex vitro rooting, however, has been associated with severe Myrothecium leaf spot (Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr.). The objective of this study was to establish a method for regenerating well-rooted plantlets before ex vitro transplanting. Leaf and petiole explants were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea (CPPU), N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (TDZ), 6-benzyladenine (BA), or N-isopentenylaminopurine (2iP) with α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), respectively. Calli formed from leaf explants cultured on the basal medium supplemented with CPPU or TDZ with 2,4-D or with NAA as well as from petiole explants cultured on the medium supplemented with BA, CPPU, or TDZ with 2,4-D or NAA. The calli, however, failed to differentiate, and shoot organogenesis did not occur. Culture of nodal explants on the MS basal medium supplemented with 9.84 μm 2iP, 8.88 μm BA, 8.07 μm CPPU, or 9.08 μm TDZ with 2.26 μm 2,4-D resulted in the formation of protocorm-like bodies, adventitious shoots, and subsequently well-rooted plantlets. MS basal medium supplemented with 19.68 μm 2iP and 1.07 μm NAA resulted in the highest percentage (92.9%) of nodal explants producing protocorm-like bodies and an average of 16.9 well-rooted plantlets per nodal explant. Adventitious shoots were able to root in the initial induction medium, but better root development occurred after shoots with protocorm-like bodies were transferred onto MS basal medium supplemented with 9.84 μm 2iP and 2.69 μm NAA. Regenerated plantlets were stable and grew vigorously with 100% survival rates after ex vitro transplanting to a container substrate in a shaded greenhouse.

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This study established a method of regenerating Dracaena surculosa Lindl. ‘Florida Beauty’ through indirect shoot organogenesis. Bud, leaf, and stem explants were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with N6-(2-isopentyl) adenine (2iP) at 12.3 and 24.6 μM with 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) at 0, 1.1, and 2.3 μM, respectively, and 2iP at 36.9, 49.2, 61.5, and 73.8 μM with IAA at 1.1 and 2.3 μM, respectively. Calluses were induced from leaf explants but failed to produce adventitious shoots. Calluses were also induced from stem and bud explants cultured on the basal medium containing 12.3 μM 2iP and 2.3 μM IAA, 24.6 μM 2iP or higher with either 1.1 or 2.3 μM IAA. The highest callus induction frequency was 63.2% from stem explants and 69.6% from bud explants when they were cultured on the basal medium supplemented with 49.2 μM 2iP and 2.3 μM IAA. The highest shoot formation frequency was 65.7% from stem-derived callus cultured on the basal medium containing 61.5 μM 2iP and 1.1 μM IAA and 88% from bud-derived callus cultured with 49.2 μM 2iP and 1.1 μM IAA. The highest number of shoots per piece of stem- and bud-derived calluses was 3.8 and 6.7, respectively. Adventitious shoots developed better root systems in the basal medium supplemented with 2.0 μM IAA. Plantlets after transplantation into a soilless substrate grew vigorously in a shaded greenhouse under a maximum photosynthetic photon flux density of 300 μmol·m−2·s−1. Neither disease incidence nor somaclonal variants were observed in the regenerated population. This established method could be used for efficient micropropagation of D. surculosa, and the availability of tissue-cultured liners could reduce the dependency on imported cuttings, which often bring new or invasive pests into the United States.

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Chlorophytum amaniense Engl. ‘Fire Flash’ is a popular exotic ornamental foliage plant as a result of its unique coral-colored midribs and petioles and tolerance to interior low light levels. Currently, demand for propagative materials exceeds the availability of seeds. This study was intended to develop an in vitro culture method for rapid propagation of this cultivar. Leaf and sprouted seed explants were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with different cytokinins with 1.1 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or 2.3 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Leaf explants showed poor responses in callus production and no adventitious shoots were obtained. Callus formation frequencies from sprouted seeds were 71% and 85% when induced by 9.8 μM N6-(2-isopentyl) adenine (2iP) with 1.1 μM NAA and 9.1 μM N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (TDZ) with 1.1 μM NAA, respectively. Adventitious shoots occurred after the induced calluses were subcultured on the same concentrations of TDZ or 2iP with NAA. Shoot formation frequencies from calluses cultured on TDZ with NAA and 2iP with NAA were 92% and 85%, and the corresponding mean shoot numbers were 37 and 31 per piece of callus (1 cm3), respectively. Adventitious shoots rooted at 100% after transferring to the basal medium containing 4.4 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) with 2.7 μM NAA. Plantlets, after transplanting to a soilless substrate were easily acclimatized in a shaded greenhouse under a photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) density of 200 μmol·m−2·s−1. Regenerated plants grew vigorously without undesirable basal branching or distorted leaves. This newly established regeneration method can provide the foliage plant industry with a means for rapidly propagating ‘Fire Flash’ liners in a year-round fashion.

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