`Heritage', `Titan', and `Boyne' red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were grown for 3 years and plots were sampled annually for changes in growth. `Heritage' is a primocane- and floricane-fruiting, strongly suckering cultivar; `Boyne' is a floricane-fruiting, strongly suckering cultivar; and `Titan' is a floricane-fruiting, weakly suckering cultivar. Each year in October, plants of each cultivar were dug from two 0.5-m2 plots in each of four rows, separated into roots, crowns, canes (primocanes were harvested in October and floricanes were harvested in July), and leaves, and dried. Fruit were harvested, yields were recorded, and dry weights of subsamples were used to estimate total fruit dry weights. `Heritage' fruit included the primocane and floricane harvests. `Heritage' was more yield-efficient than `Boyne' or `Titan' in that it allocated a higher percentage of total dry weight to fruit and a lower percentage to vegetative parts. Although `Titan' had fewer canes, cane diameter and length were greater. `Boyne' allocated higher percentages of total dry weight to roots than other cultivars. The percentage of total dry weight allocated to fruit was similar for `Boyne' and `Titan' in 1992, but lower for `Boyne' in 1991. Within the cultivars tested, phenotype for suckering did not indicate productivity.
Juanita Popenoe and Tara Auxt Baugher
Photosynthesis, light (PAR) and transpiration were measured with an ADC portable infrared gas analyzer on apples and grapes. Measurements were taken on north and south sides of the rows, in the morning and afternoon, on sun and shade leaves, and with the leaf chamber in a horizontal position and in a natural leaf orientation position. Measurements were made on three cloudless days in August 1990 and 1991. Subsequently, fruit adjacent to sampled leaves were harvested and soluble solids determined. Sampled leaves were then harvested and leaf areas and dry weights measured. Correlation coefficients of variables were then subjected to analysis of variance to determine which techniques gave the best correlations. Grapes and apples responded differently. For grapes, soluble solids were most closely correlated to light and photosynthesis measurements when measured on south side shade leaves, while with apples, blush side soluble solids were best correlated with measurements on south side sun leaves in the afternoon. Specific leaf weight was best correlated to photosynthesis and light with grapes when measured on north side sun leaves and with apples when measured on the south side in the morning.
Teresa Olczyk, Juanita Popenoe, Ed Skvarch and Alejandro Bolques
The Florida nursery industry generated $3 billion in farm gate sales in 2005, positioning Florida as the nation's second largest nursery crop production state after California. The recent downturn in the economy and collapse of the housing market has had a negative impact on some sectors of the industry, forcing many of the nurseries producing landscape plant material out of business, but leaving some nurseries untouched. An informal survey by extension agents indicated that nurseries are coping by using various strategies, including reductions in labor force, increased efficiencies in irrigation and fertilizer, the adoption of best management practices, creative marketing strategies, specialization in the production of unique crops, and innovative production and business techniques.
Donna Ballard, Juanita Popenoe, Bradford Bearce and Jeffrey Skousen
Strawberry (Fragaria × Anaassa cv. Tribute) plants were planted in 15 cm standard pots filled with overburden soils from three West Virginia surface mine sites. Initial pH levels were 6.5, 4.4, and 3.6. Prior to planting pH levels were adjusted with CaCO3 to 6.5-6.7 in each soil. Each soil was amended by mixing in 60.85 g/pot (62.5 dry kg/ha) of sewage sludge, Sudan-sorghum hybrid green manure crop, hardwood residues, or unamended. A dry fertilizer (.10-.045-,089, N-P-K) was also mixed into the soil at a rate of 0.5 g/pot (454 kg/ha). Plants were grown from 3-6 to 10-16, 1992, on which date harvests and measurements were performed. The sludge treatments significantly increased fresh and dry weight accumulation, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of runners per plant above that of the control plants. The hardwood residues amendment delayed first date of ripe fruit and decreased average fruit fresh weight in one of the soils. Hardwood residues also decreased leaf number in another soil. The pH levels were raised to 6.8-7.3 by the sludge in all soils and remained at or near these values during the growing period.