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Juan J. Polari, Louise Ferguson and Selina C. Wang

Moisture and fat content, fatty acid profile, and volatile terpenes were measured for the first time for ‘Kalehghouchi’, ‘Pete 1’, and ‘Lost Hills’ pistachios grown at two California microclimates: Lost Hills and Parlier. ‘Kalehghouchi’ had the highest moisture content, followed by ‘Pete 1’ and ‘Lost Hills’, respectively. While the moisture content of ‘Kalehghouchi’ was not significantly affected by location, it was lower for ‘Pete 1’ grown at Parlier (40.8 vs. 40.8 g/100 g) and higher for ‘Lost Hill’ grown there (48.2 vs. 45.2 g/100 g). ‘Pete 1’ grown at the Parlier site had a higher fat content compared with ‘Lost Hills’ (47.7 vs. 43.0 g/100 g). ‘Kalehghouchi’ had a lower fat content at Parlier compared with Lost Hills (42.0 vs. 44.9 g/100 g), and ‘Lost Hills’ was unaffected by location. The main fatty acid measured in the pistachio samples was oleic acid (52% to 58%), followed by linoleic (26% to 33%) and palmitic acids (11% to 13%). While oleic acid content of ‘Lost Hills’ and ‘Kalehghouchi’ was higher for pistachios grown in Parlier, no impact of location was observed for ‘Pete 1’. The fatty acid profiles of all three cultivars appeared to be more dependent on genotype and less affected by microclimate. α-pinene (95–1682 ng/kg), limonene (37–741 ng/kg), and α-terpinolene (1–368 ng/kg) were the most abundant volatiles among all the cultivars and locations. Microclimate was the primary factor in determining volatile terpenes concentration in pistachio kernels.