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- Author or Editor: Juan Guillermo Cruz-Castillo x
The fruit of Persea schiedeana is consumed in various rural regions of Mexico and Central America and is mainly sold in local markets. Information regarding the ecological conditions where it grows and the potential for its distribution in Mexico has been little studied. The States of Chiapas, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tabasco, and Veracruz in Mexico were explored to locate P. schiedeana trees. The ecological conditions of the places where P. schiedeana was found were characterized using thematic cartography and by evaluating the ecological niches to identify potential areas for its distribution. The trees were found in wide physiographic, geological, and edaphic conditions, but they were primarily located in semiwarm humid and warm humid climates. Persea schiedeana trees grow from almost sea level to 2000 m in altitude. Zones with the best developmental conditions for P. schiedeana were in the region of the high mountains in the center of Veracruz and the highland zone of northern Oaxaca. The oil obtained from the fruit of P. schiedeana trees growing at 1300 m had high oleic acid content. This wild fruit has the potential for obtaining new products for cosmetic and alimentary industries.
In terms of color, firmness, respiration, and ethylene production during the postharvest period, ripening is here characterized for the first time in the fruit of Persea schiedeana Nees. The results show a respiratory peak (respiratory climacteric) and an ethylene production peak, indicating that the fruit of P. schiedeana can be classified as climacteric. The fruit ripened rapidly, and senescence effects appeared 5 days after harvest. Together with appreciable weight loss during the postharvest period, this makes the fruit very perishable. Preliminary values for quantitative ripening indices are provided (fruit firmness, color lightness, hue angle, and chroma).
Thirty-four accessions of wild grapevines, native to three regions of the state of Puebla, Mexico, that is Teziutlán, Tehuacán, and Atlixco, were vegetatively characterized with 32 suggested IPGRI, UPOV, and OIV descriptors related to young shoot (YS), mature shoot (MS), young leaf (YL), mature leaf (ML), and woody shoot (WS). Excepting profile and absence of sinus teeth in ML, the remaining parameters showed variation among the accessions. After the performance of a correlation analysis among the 32 characters, only those closely correlated were used; that is, for MS: color of dorsal side of node, density of prostrate trichomes of internode; for YL: density of prostrate trichomes between veins and density of erect trichomes on main veins; and for ML: general shape of petiole sinus and the density of erect trichomes on veins in mature leaves. With those six characters, six principal components explained the total variability observed. The most closely related descriptors for principal Component 1 were the ML general shape of petiole sinus (−0.735) and the YL density of erect trichomes on main veins (0.659), whereas for principal Component 2, the MS color of the dorsal side of the node (0.677) and the density of erect trichomes in ML (0.596) were the most highly related. A cluster analysis identified four groups with a euclidean distance of 18; except for plant 183, the other six included in Group 1 were native to the regions Atlixco and Tehuacán; Group 2 was formed by plants native to the three regions, whereas Group 3 was formed by plants native to Teziutlán and Atlixco; Group 4 was formed only by Plant 36, native to Atlixco. These results show that variation among accessions occurs within and among the three states of the Puebla region.
Fifty-six accessions of white sapote (Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex.) grown in situ in 11 municipalities in the state of Michoacán, Mexico, were characterized using 14 morphometric variables (six of fruit and eight of seed). There was a high cv for fruit weight (0.50), the number of developed seeds (NDS) (0.48), and total seed weight (0.45). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the main differences among the C. edulis accessions were fruit weight, seed projected area, Feret diameter (FD), the length of polar and equatorial axes of the fruit, the number of undeveloped seeds (NUS), the NDS, hardness of the skin (HS), and total soluble solids content of the fruits. Three groups of accessions were determined by cluster analysis (CA). The first group was made up of 53 accessions with intermediate values of fruit size and seed size. The second group, comprising two accessions, had the lowest values of fruit size. The third group showed an outstanding individual with the highest values for fruit size/weight, seed weight, and total soluble solids. Through an in-depth examination of the genotypes of the first group, four genotypes were identified for their positive characteristics. The results indicate an extremely high variability in the fruit and seed characteristics produced by different trees/genotypes of white sapote in Mexico. Hence, an initial, preliminary individuation/selection of five genotypes could be considered for the development of new cultivars for establishing white sapote orchards in Mexico.