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- Author or Editor: Joseph D. Norton x
The inheritance of resistance to Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm (= Mycosphaerella citrullina C. O. Smith) in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) plant introduction PI 189225 was determined in crosses with the susceptible cultivar ‘Charleston Gray’. Segregation of F2 and backcross populations indicated that resistance to D. bryoniae in PI 189225 is governed by a recessive gene.
Bruce 12-4 is a plum selection released for breeding purposes that possesses an unusual combination of disease resistance, tree longevity, cold hardiness and other characteristics. The seedling requires chilling of 700 hr of temperature below 7.2°C (45°F). This seedling has consistently produced high yields of fruit in central Alabama (Fig. 1).
‘Crimson’, ‘Purple’, and ‘Homeside’ are new plum cultivars developed for Alabama (Fig. 1). ‘Crimson’ and ‘Purple’ are adapted where 850 hr of chilling below 7.2°C (45°F) occur; they consistently produced good yields of high quality fruit in Central and North Alabama (1, 2). ‘Homeside’ is adapted where sufficient chilling of 700 hr below 7.2°C (45°F) occurs; it has consistently produced good yields of high quality fruit in central and south Alabama (3).
‘AU-Producer’ is a new plum cultivar (Fig 1) developed by the Department of Horticulture, Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station for growing in central Alabama, where sufficient chilling of 750 hr of temperature below 7.2° C (45° F) occurs. ‘AU-Producer’ has proven its ability to produce high yields of high quality fruit where certain fruit and disease problems occur.
The cross was made in 1965 and the seedling was selected in 1967 and tested as Bruce 13-18 (Fig. 2).
Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line AC-82-37-2 was identified as having resistance to alternaria leaf blight caused by Alternaria cucumerina (Ell. and Ev.) Elliot. An analysis of this resistance with a three-factor scaling test indicated that both additive and dominance effects were highly significant. The x2 value indicated that there were epistatic effects as well. The six-factor scaling test revealed no significant dominance effect, but the additive and homozygote × heterozygote epistatic interaction effects were highly significant.
The transmission of plum leaf scald or phony peach, Xylella fartidiosa, Wells is compared by the slip and chip budding with peach and plum scions on two peach rootstocks, `Lovell' and `Nemaguard'. ELISA was used to determine mean concentrations of the bacteria in scion leaf petioles. There was a greater level of transmission of the pathogen using chip budding over slip budding in plums but not in peach. Further analysis of slip budding showed no difference to unbudded rootstocks wheras chip budding caused a significantly higher incidence of transmission.
Evaluation of progeny resulting from controlled crosses and selfs of various plum (Prunus salicina and hybrids) cultivars revealed that resistance to black knot Apisporina morbosa (Schw.) is controlled by a single recessive gene (proposed designation bk) in the resistant cultivars studied. `Bruce', `Munson', `Crimson', and `Ozark Premier' were homozygous resistant (bkbk), while `Methley' was susceptible and heterozygous (Bkbk) for the trait.
Stored Chinese chestnuts (Castanea molissima Blume) are extremely susceptible to spoilage by molds. This research was initiated to determine if storage at reduced atmospheres in conjunction with vacuum-infused mycostatic chemicals could reduce mold growth and enhance the quality of stored nuts. Nuts were treated with two levels of buffered sodium propionate and two levels of buffered sodium benzoate and stored either at atmospheric pressure or at 0.17 atmosphere (4.0% O2) and minimal gas circulation. Relative humidity was maintained at 88%. Mold counts, weight, texture, and moisture content were recorded every 20 days. Mold counts of the chemically treated nuts stored at atmospheric pressure did not differ from untreated nuts. Storage at reduced atmosphere in conjunction with chemical treatment inhibited mold growth, reduced weight loss, and preserved fresh quality and viability of the nuts.
Chinese chestnuts (Castanea molissima Blume) are very susceptible to spoilage, and require artificial storage means to maintain fresh nuts. Frozen shelled nuts would offer the consumer a convenient product with no waste or spoilage, however chestnuts have traditionally been cured and held in storage to develop a desirable texture and conversion of starch to sugars. This research was initiated to determine the effect of thermal blanch treatment (water vs. syrups) on the texture, color and acceptability cured and uncured frozen, shelled Chinese chestnuts. After frozen storage nuts blanched in syrup had better color and firmer textures than water-blanched nuts. Uncured nuts were firmer than cured nuts, and were ranked above cured nuts by sensory panelists.
Chinese chestnuts (Castanea molissima Blume) are a highly perishable commodity which requires artificial storage means and is easily spoiled by fungi. This investigation was designed to develop processes and adapt equipment for more efficient processing and storage of Chinese chestnuts, establish parameters for optimum fresh storage, and to compare the yields and qualities of the chestnuts processed by the test methods. Chinese chestnuts were prepared for fresh storage by vacuum infusing mycostatic solutions and modified starch coatings inside the shells. Vacuum treatment facilitated perfect contact of these solutions with the surfaces of the kernels, and was a more rapid method than atmospheric or pressure soaking methods. Vacuum infused pretreatments limited desiccation, minimized spoilage, reduced storage weight losses, and yielded products with better color and texture than conventional storage. Thermal treatments for surface pasteurization were defined. A storage relative humidity of 87% was found to be optimal.