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Durward Smith and Joseph D. Norton

Chinese chestnuts (Castanea molissima Blume) are very susceptible to spoilage, and require artificial storage means to maintain fresh nuts. Frozen shelled nuts would offer the consumer a convenient product with no waste or spoilage, however chestnuts have traditionally been cured and held in storage to develop a desirable texture and conversion of starch to sugars. This research was initiated to determine the effect of thermal blanch treatment (water vs. syrups) on the texture, color and acceptability cured and uncured frozen, shelled Chinese chestnuts. After frozen storage nuts blanched in syrup had better color and firmer textures than water-blanched nuts. Uncured nuts were firmer than cured nuts, and were ranked above cured nuts by sensory panelists.

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Durward Smith and Joseph D. Norton

Chinese chestnuts (Castanea molissima Blume) are a highly perishable commodity which requires artificial storage means and is easily spoiled by fungi. This investigation was designed to develop processes and adapt equipment for more efficient processing and storage of Chinese chestnuts, establish parameters for optimum fresh storage, and to compare the yields and qualities of the chestnuts processed by the test methods. Chinese chestnuts were prepared for fresh storage by vacuum infusing mycostatic solutions and modified starch coatings inside the shells. Vacuum treatment facilitated perfect contact of these solutions with the surfaces of the kernels, and was a more rapid method than atmospheric or pressure soaking methods. Vacuum infused pretreatments limited desiccation, minimized spoilage, reduced storage weight losses, and yielded products with better color and texture than conventional storage. Thermal treatments for surface pasteurization were defined. A storage relative humidity of 87% was found to be optimal.

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Durward Smith and Joseph D. Norton

Stored Chinese chestnuts (Castanea molissima Blume) are extremely susceptible to spoilage by molds. This research was initiated to determine if storage at reduced atmospheres in conjunction with vacuum-infused mycostatic chemicals could reduce mold growth and enhance the quality of stored nuts. Nuts were treated with two levels of buffered sodium propionate and two levels of buffered sodium benzoate and stored either at atmospheric pressure or at 0.17 atmosphere (4.0% O2) and minimal gas circulation. Relative humidity was maintained at 88%. Mold counts, weight, texture, and moisture content were recorded every 20 days. Mold counts of the chemically treated nuts stored at atmospheric pressure did not differ from untreated nuts. Storage at reduced atmosphere in conjunction with chemical treatment inhibited mold growth, reduced weight loss, and preserved fresh quality and viability of the nuts.

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Hongwen Huang, Fenny Dane, and Joseph D. Norton

Linkage relations among eight isozyme genes, Acp-3, Est-1, Est-5, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3, Me and Adh, and two morphological markers, Inh, and Twh, were investigated in one F2 and two BC1 families of interspecific crosses between the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) and the Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima). Inh was found to be consistently linked with Prx-1 and Est-5 in all families. The order of these three genes was determined to be-Ihn--Prx1--Est5. In addition, four other gene pairs, Acp3--Inh, Acp3--Prx1, Me--Inh and Twh--Inh were found to be linked in one of the three families investigated. The four isozyme genes and two morphological marker genes were tentatively integrated into one linkage group with the following gene order Acp3--Me--Twh--Inh--Prx1-Est5. This study demonstrated that isozyme genes can be integrated with morphological marker genes into a single linkage map without the need for additional crosses.

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George E. Boyhan and Joseph D. Norton

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line AC-82-37-2 was identified as having resistance to alternaria leaf blight caused by Alternaria cucumerina (Ell. and Ev.) Elliot. An analysis of this resistance with a three-factor scaling test indicated that both additive and dominance effects were highly significant. The x2 value indicated that there were epistatic effects as well. The six-factor scaling test revealed no significant dominance effect, but the additive and homozygote × heterozygote epistatic interaction effects were highly significant.

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Bruce R. Abrahams and Joseph D. Norton

The transmission of plum leaf scald or phony peach, Xylella fartidiosa, Wells is compared by the slip and chip budding with peach and plum scions on two peach rootstocks, `Lovell' and `Nemaguard'. ELISA was used to determine mean concentrations of the bacteria in scion leaf petioles. There was a greater level of transmission of the pathogen using chip budding over slip budding in plums but not in peach. Further analysis of slip budding showed no difference to unbudded rootstocks wheras chip budding caused a significantly higher incidence of transmission.

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Hongwen Huang, Fenny Dane, and Joseph D. Norton

Allozyme polymorphism in chestnut (Castanea) species was investigated using isoelectric focusing in thin-layer polyacrylamide slab gels. Genetic analysis of the progenies of intraspecific crosses and interspecific F2s and backcrosses (BC1s) allowed the verification of 11 polymorphic isozyme loci from 11 enzyme systems. The following loci were defined: Acp, Adh, Est-1, Est-2, Est-5, Me, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3, Skd-3, and Skd-4. All polymorphic loci behaved as single-locus Mendelian genes. Skd showed unique species specificity. Skd-1 and Skd-2 were unique to the American chestnut (C. dentata Borkh.) and the European chestnut (C. sativa Mill.), whereas Skd-3 and Skd-4 were unique to the Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima Bl.) and the Japanese chestnut (C. crenata Sieb.). Linkage analysis revealed linkage for three pairs of loci: Skd-3/Skd-4, Est-1/Est-2, and Est-5/Prx-1. The single-tree progeny method was used successfully for isozyme genetic analysis. Forty-seven chestnut cultivars in six chestnut species were characterized using 12 isozyme loci and can be unambiguously identified by 12 multi-locus genotypes. The interspecific and geographic relationships among species were also discussed.

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George Boyhan, Joseph D. Norton, Barry J. Jacobsen, and Bruce R. Abrahams

Of 153 plant introductions (PI), breeding lines, and commercial cultivars tested by mechanical inoculations in the greenhouse, only PI 482261-1, `Egun', PI 494528, PI 386026, and PI 386025 showed any resistance to the Florida strain of zucchini yellow mosaic virus. PI 482261-1 and `Egun' are Citrullus lanatus, the others are citron types, Citrullus colocynthis. This is the first report of resistance in PI 386026, PI 386025, and the cultivar `Egun'.