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  • Author or Editor: Jose Santiago x
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Cultivated tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray var. latifolius Freeman) has potential for production during the hot, dry seasons in the tropics. Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), however, seriously limits production of Phaseolus spp. in such environments. Twelve select tepary beans were evaluated for reaction to BGMV across four field nurseries near Isabela, Puerto Rico. Disease reaction was principally determined by measurement of seed yield (kg·ha–1) and weight (g 100/seeds). All tepary beans possessed some tolerance to BGMV, as they produced comparatively moderate seed yield despite expression of severe foliar yellow mosaic symptoms. On average, tepary bean yielded 133% of the BGMV-resistant dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) control `Dorado'. Four teparies, Neb-T-6-s, GN-610-s, Neb-T-8a-s, and PI 321637-s, expressed superior tolerance to BGMV as they yielded above the trial mean in at least three of four trials. Harvested seed quality was uniformly poor across all lines, averaging 18% less weight than in the non-BGMV trials. The combination of the observed tolerance with escape mechanisms and cultural disease control practices may enable production of tepary bean in regions and seasons that experience moderate to severe BGMV epidemics.

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Sonora, Mexico, is an outstanding area for growing good quality and high-yield vegetables, fruits, and nuts for year-round exportation. Each year, Sonora produces important, large quantities of fruits and nuts for exportation, including table grape, citrus, pecan, and olive fruit. Also, fresh vegetable production in Sonora is very important. Annually, large volumes of melon, pumpkin, summer squash, chili, husk tomato, tomato, and asparagus are produced for exportation to the United States, Europe, and Japan. Throughout the year, two important growing seasons for vegetable production have been established in Sonora. The most important growing season for vegetable exportation in Sonora is the autumn-winter season, when higher prices are reached for summer vegetables in the U.S. markets. The autumn–winter season begins in August and finishes in December. In Sonora, during the 2002–03 agricultural cycle, 39,666 ha (89,000 acres) of vegetables were established in the field. Many growers in Sonora are investing in imported high technologies for protected cropping from several developed countries, such as the United States, Canada, Israel, and some European countries. Currently in Sonora, high technology is applied by growers for vegetable production, i.e., plastic mulching, low and high tunnels, greenhouses, and shadow frames, which have been frequently used on fresh vegetable commercial production to improve both quality and yield. Because of a large labor force and the attractive income from fresh vegetable exportations to the United States, fresh vegetable production is a very important industry in Sonora. In fact, growing summer vegetables for exportation during the wintertime in Sonora, Mexico, is a good business.

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Lagurus ovatus is an annual grass typical of sandy coastal soils, wide-spread in southern Europe. The color and texture of the inflorescence have such features that give good qualities as dry flower. In this work we have studied the germination capacity of Lagurus ovatus in different conditions of temperature, light and salinity. Seeds harvested in of the province of Murcia (Southeast of Spain) were tested in germination chambers with constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C) and combined temperatures (20/30, 15/25, 10/20 and 5/15 °C). For each treatment, the photoperiod was 12 hours and total darkness. The results showed that total darkness was required to germination and the highest germination were obtained with constant temperatures of 10°C (90%) and 15°C (66%). Temperatures above or below reduced significantly the final germination. With alternate temperatures, the highest values were recorded when at least for 12 hours the temperature was 10 °C or 15 °C (5/15, 10/20 and 15/25 °C) 87%, 93%, and 88% respectively. Once calculated the optimum temperature a salinity experiment was carried out to determine how this parameter affected germination. The assay was carried out at 10/20 °C. The seeds were watered with a NaCl2 solution of: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15 and 17.5 dS·m-1. The greatest germination was obtained in non-saline control (88%) and its was linearly reduced with increases in salinity to 10 dS·m-1 (4%). No germination was registered from 12.5 to 17.5 dS·m-1. When non-germinated seeds were transferred to distilled water after the exposure to salinity, rates of germination were very high in all cases. This work was supported by the CICyT of Spain (project AGL2000-0521).

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The grapevine cultivar Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most economically important of northwestern Spain. It is also grown in northern Portugal. The present work examines the results obtained by two clonal selection processes involving this cultivar. The first of these was begun in 1987 by the Viticulture Research Group of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC). This involved centuries-old mother plants showing small ampelographic or agronomic differences. The second process was begun in 1989 by the wine-making company Bodegas Terras Gauda S.A. This involved the use of centuries-old ‘Albariño’ plants too, but also of other plants no older than 20 years of age. The number of mother plants originally examined in the CISC procedure was 40, but only eight were finally selected and planted (at the Misión Biológica de Galicia Research Station). In the procedure followed by Bodegas Terras Gauda S.A., 115 mother plants were originally planted. The characteristics of the eight CSIC clones and the 22 surviving Bodegas Terras Gauda S.A. clones were determined. The variability of the eight CSIC clones was found to be greater. It is recommended that candidate materials for use in clonal selection programs be examined for differences in situ before being admitted to collections.

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The Agave potatorum Zucc. is a wild species endemic to Oaxaca and Puebla, Mexico. The stem or “head” of the plants of this species contains a large amount of fructans, which, in conjunction with their crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), helps the agave to survive droughts. The soluble carbohydrates are used to produce mezcal. The objective was to evaluate growth and content of fructans of A. potatorum young plants grown in soil and perlite substrate, fertigated with three nutrient solutions, and subjected to drought. Eight-month-old plants were used and, for 15 months, were fertigated with nutrient solutions: 1) Steiner, 2) Hoagland and Arnon, and 3) Urrestarazu. Irrigation was later suspended to simulate a 5-month drought and induce stress. During fertigation, the vegetative growth was greater in plants irrigated with Hoagland and Arnon and Urrestarazu solutions in perlite and in soil. After the period of water deficit stress, plants in perlite substrate fertigated with the Hoagland and Arnon solution accumulated more fructans in the heads, reaching a maximum of 75%, than plants in soil substrate (42%).

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