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  • Author or Editor: Jorge Arboleya x
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Information is presented about the linkages and relationships between the research and the transfer of technology-extension systems established within the countries that compose the Common Market of the South [Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR)]. A brief description about the history of agricultural extension in each country is included along with descriptions of the major changes that have occurred within the last 10 years. This analysis allows a general comparison among the different extension approaches, and in particular regarding the institutional development for the system in the four countries of MERCOSUR.

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National Research Inst. of Agriculture of Uruguay defined garlic as an important crop because its potential for exportation. Plant population and N management have been studied since 1992. Plant population of 112, 250, 333 and 500 thousand plants/ha at rates of N at 0, 75, 150 and 225 kg·ha–1 were tested in 1992, 1993, and 1995. Drip irrigation and plastic mulch with populations from 240 to 960 thousand plants/ha in 1992 and from 236 to 586 plants/ha in 1993 were evaluated. Nitrogen rates of 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha, and application times were also tested with a population of 250 thousand plants/ha, in 1992 and 1993. Plant population of 240, 320 and 560 thousand plants/ha yielded 12,0; 12,4 and 14,2 t·ha–1 respectively. As plant population increased, bulb size decreased. Yield increased up to rate of N at 150 kg·ha–1.

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Dry bulb onion (Allium cepa) leaves may not dry down normally and bulbs may not attain dormancy during adverse growing seasons. An effective method of artificial leaf desiccation is needed to complement mechanical harvesting and onion conditioning for storage. Desiccants were tested in 1993, 1994, 1995, 2001, 2002, 2003 on onion leaves prior to harvest, and bulb quality was evaluated after 5 months or more of storage. Carfentrazone, diquat, and paraquat desiccated onion foliage well but increased bulb rot and reduced the percentage of marketable bulbs after storage. Bromoxynil and endothall desiccated onion foliage significantly without inducing rot or reducing the percentage of marketable bulbs. Copper sulfate and pelargonic acid increased desiccation of onion foliage but were not sufficiently effective for field use. Neither reduced the percentage of marketable bulbs. If bromoxynil or endothall were labelled for onion desiccation, they could be applied 10-14 days before harvest to enhance natural leaf senescence and facilitate mechanical harvest.

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