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Jong Suk Lee and Mark S. Roh

The effect of long-term storage of lily bulbs at -2 °C and of high temperatures on plant height and floral abnormalities was investigated with Oriental hybrid lilies in 1997-2000. `Acapulco' and `Simplon' bulbs were stored frozen at -2 °C and forced in regular greenhouses with varying temperatures between 12 to 30 °C, depending on the season, and also air-conditioned greenhouses where temperatures were maintained year-round at 15.5 to 16 °C or 18 to 18.5 °C. Floral development was observed under a scanning electron microscope after -2 °C treatment. At flowering, stem length with dried and green leaves, number of leaves, and number of normal and abnormal flowers were counted. Although frozen-in storage duration affected plant height, flowering, and the number of abnormal flowers, high temperatures during summer significantly affected the speed of flowering, plant height, and the number of abnormal flowers. High temperature damage can be prevented by growing bulbs at low temperatures immediately after planting the frozen-in stored bulbs. Bulbs can be stored for 12 months to produce quality cut Oriental hybrid lily flowers.

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Jong-Suk Lee and Ki-Sun Kim

In spite of its rapid growth in recent years, the floricultural industry in Korea is rather small with respect to total acreage and number of growers engaged, product value, international trade, and production facilities and technics involved. The production status will be introduced with slides. Nevertheless, variable climatic conditions of the temperate zone such as the distinctive 4 seasons favor the prosperous growth of a variety of vegetation throughout the Korean peninsular. Thus, it has been wellknown that many ornamental plants native to Korea have good potentials for horticultural use. The morphological characteristics of a few selected plants will be introduced along with slides. These plants include Aster spp, Iris spp, Gentiana soabra, Chrysanthemum zawadski, Pulsatilla koreana, Cymbidium spp, Calanthe spp, Dendrobium moniliforme, Abeliophyllum distichum, Ardisia spp, Hibiscus syriacus, and many others.

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Young A. Kim and Jong Suk Lee

To investigate the differences of anatomical structure of neck tissue between bent-neck and strong-neck flowers, scanning electron microscopy of neck tissue during senescence of cut rose flowers held in deionized water or preservative solution (3% sucrose + 200 ppm HQS + 0.1 mM ethionine) was observed. Lignins in xylem, phloem, and interfascicular cambium of neck were stained to red by phloroglucine. More lignin was formed in the phloem of neck in rose flowers held in preservative solution than deionized water. Neck strength of cut rose could be increased by increase of lignin content, and this would prevent bent-neck and extend vase life. Parenchyma cells in neck part of rose flowers held in deionized water had thinner cell wall and less starch grains at senescence than those of flowers held in preservative solution at day 7. These starch grains would be used as energy source of rose flowers and extend vase life. Globular crystals were observed in the inner part of cells and had shape of large thorny. These crystals were cumulated in cell walls, then would prevent the activity of cell wall decomposition or increase cell wall permeability.

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Jong Suk Lee and Mark S. Roh

The effect of long-term storage of lily bulbs at -2 °C (frozen storage) and of high forcing temperatures on plant height and floral abnormalities was investigated with Oriental hybrid lilies from 1998 to 2000. `Acapulco' and `Simplon' bulbs were stored frozen at -2 °C for various lengths of time and were forced in fan- and pad-cooled greenhouses with temperatures ranging from 11 to 31 °C, depending on the season. The same cultivars were also forced in greenhouses and maintained year-round under refrigerated air conditioning with day/night temperatures of 16/15.5 °C or 18.5/18 °C. Floral development immediately after storage and at different intervals thereafter was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prolonged frozen storage reduced the number of flowers. High greenhouse forcing temperatures during summer significantly accelerated flowering, resulted in short plants, and increased the number of abnormal flowers. Forcing at a low temperature (15.5 °C) after planting the frozen stored bulbs resulted in longer cut stems than those forced at 25 °C for 30 days after potting. Bulbs can be stored up to 9 months and still produce high-quality Oriental hybrid lilies.

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Jong Suk Lee and Cheon Young Song

It has been a serious problem that flower buds of camellia (Camellia spp.) drop very easily when they are grown under unfavourable indoor conditions. To examine the factors affecting flower bud abscission, some cultivars of potted camellia (Camellia japonica L.) moved to various indoor conditions from greenhouse after flower buds were well developed. In general, double flowering cultivars showed more flower bud abscission than single flowering cultivars. Relative humidity (RH) severely influenced flower bud abscission. In `Beniodome' camellias, flower bud abscission reached to 90% under arid condition (30% RH) which resulted in very poor flowering (8%), whereas flower bud abscission recorded only 5% under humid condition (80% RH) which resulted in abundant flowering (90%). Flower bud abscission of camellias was little influenced by light intensity. Plants applied with 500 ppm ethephon produced a lot of ethylene and abscised all flower buds within a month. Ethylene accelerated the development of the abscission layer of camellia pedicels. Spray with 2 mM silver thiosulfate (STS) effectively prevented flower bud abscission of potted camellias. Polygalacturonase activity of abscission zones was correlated with the increase of flower bud abscission in camellias.

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Jong Suk Lee and Young A. Kim

Rose (Rosa hybrida) cvs. Red Velvet, First Red, Sonia, and Saphir stems harvested at bud stage were kept in deionized water or preservative solution (3% sucrose + 200 ppm HQS + 0.1 mM ethionine) at 21°C under continuous light (1200 lux). Vase life of `First Red' and `Saphir' was much longer than those of `Red Velvet' and `Sonia' held in deionized water. Severe bent-neck was observed in `Red Velvet' flowers held in deionized water in 8 days after harvest. Rose flowers held in preservative solution resulted in extended vase life and inhibited senescence and bent-neck in four cultivars. Neck strength of `First Red' and `Saphir' rose flowers having no bent-neck and long vase life was stronger than `Red Velvet' and `Sonia' having frequent bent-neck and short vase life. Neck strength was also increased by preservative solution. Faster changes of water balance to minus value were detected in the rose flowers held in deionized water than those held in preservative solution. `Red Velvet' flowers having much absorption of water but more transpiration caused a fast change to a minus value in water balance and early bent-neck. Cell sap pH gradually increased in petal and stem of rose cultivars during senescence. Cell sap pH of flowers held in distilled water were higher than those held in preservative solution. Increased cell sap pH of rose flowers caused rapid change to blueing and yellowing of petals.

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Jong Suk Lee, Young A Kim, and Young Mi Sin

Cut snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus L. cvs. Fujinoyuki, Oakland, and Bismarck) were harvested at three different stages and pulsed with silver thiosulfate (STS). Then, the flowers were treated with several preservative solutions to test the effects on vase life and flower quality. Proper storage methods were also investigated. The best harvesting time of snapdragon was when seven to nine florets were opened in a spike. The flowers harvested at this stage had more fresh weight, increased number of opened flowers per spike, and longer vase life than those harvested at earlier stages. Pulsing with 0.2 mM STS for 16 h improved flower quality and prolonged vase life. The preservative solution containing 2% sucrose + 150 ppm 8-hydroxyquinone citrate (HQC) + 25 ppm AgNO3 prolonged vase life. However, this solution caused longer internode between florets and excessive elongation of spike. The preservative solution containing 2% sucrose + 150 ppm HQC + 25 ppm AgNO3 + 50 ppm daminozide improved flower quality by prolonging vase life, reducing the length of internode between florets, and preventing excessive elongation of spike. The flowers held in 50% 7-Up had 2 times prolonged vase life compared to water control. The flowers held in 4% ethyl alcohol also had prolonged vase life and increased fresh weight. Ethylene caused floret abscission and STS pretreatment prevented this floret abscission. Ethylene production in cut snapdragons maintained 2 to 6 nl/g fresh weight per h during vase life. The prolonging storage at low temperature (1C) shortened vase life. The flowers pretreated with STS, and then held in preservative solution during cold storage, had better flower quality and longer vase life than those in plain water.

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Mark Roh, Roger Lawson, Jong Suk Lee, Jeung Keun Suh, Richard A. Criley, and Pimchai Apavatjrut

Sixteen accessions of Curcuma germplasm and several selected accessions of Curcuma were evaluated for use as potted plants or as cut flowers. Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and C. thorelii Gagnep. `Chiang Mai Snow' met standards for cut flower and pot plant use, respectively. Furthermore, C. parviflora Will. `White Angel' proved to be a good selection for potted plant production. Optimum storage temperatures of rhizomes were studied in relation to greenhouse forcing and carbohydrate changes. It is recommended to store rhizomes at 25 to 30 °C after harvest for 2 to 3 months to break dormancy. Plants of C. parviflora `White Angel' flowered in 50 to 89 days and C. `CMU Pride' flowered in 104 days after potting, and were acceptable as potted plants. Plants of C. alismatifolia flowered 96 to 133 days after potting with floral stem length suitable for use as a cut flower. A high level of boron or manganese may cause the burn at the margin of the leaves (marginal leaf burn) observed on old leaves of `CMU Pride' at flowering. The level of ethanol-soluble fructose, glucose, and sucrose in elongated rhizomes with emerged short shoots of Curcuma was higher than the level in rhizomes and increased as storage temperatures increased. Accelerated leaf emergence may be associated with the increase in the glucose and fructose content. Based on the similar morphological characters between C. thorelli `Chiang Mai Snow' and C. parviflora `White Angel', identification of Curcuma accessions is required in future studies.