Web sites such as the University of Connecticut (UConn) Plant Database allow large volumes of information and images to be stored, published and accessed by users for the purpose of informed decision-making. Sorting information on the World Wide Web (Web) can be difficult, especially for novice users and those interested in quick results. The advent of Internet search and retrieval software fosters the creation of interactive decision support systems. The Plant Selector was designed to complement the UConn Plant Database plant encyclopedia by allowing Web site users to generate lists of woody ornamental plants that match specific criteria. On completion of an HTML-based search form by users, a Web-enabled database is searched and lists of matching plants are presented for review. To facilitate analysis of the Plant Selector's efficacy, an online questionnaire was implemented to solicit user feedback. Survey data from 426 responses to the online evaluation tool were analyzed both to understand user demographics and gauge satisfaction with the Plant Selector module. Survey data revealed that most Plant Selector users are between 40 to 65 years of age and homeowners with minimal horticultural experience. A large percentage of Web site visitors (68%) is located across the United States beyond Connecticut and the New England region. The great majority of survey respondents (65%) use this tool to select plants for the home landscape. Most (77%) either agree or strongly agree that the Plant Selector is easy to use and delivers results that are useful (66%), while 70% agree or strongly agree that the categories used by the Plant Selector are sufficient. The survey results in general suggest that Web-based decision support systems may serve useful roles in the field of horticulture education.
Jonathan M. Lehrer and Mark H. Brand
Jonathan M. Lehrer and Mark H. Brand
While Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is an acknowledged invasive plant, the danger posed by its garden cultivars is unknown. This work analyzed the reproductive potential and seedling traits of wild type Japanese barberry and four important cultivars: `Atropurpurea', `Aurea', `Crimson Pygmy', and `Rose Glow'. The germination capacity of cleaned and stratified seeds was determined for all accessions in a greenhouse and seedling foliage color was noted. A subpopulation of seedlings from each accession was grown further in containers outdoors for a full season to ascertain seedling vigor. The average number of seeds produced per landscape specimen ranged from 75 and 90 for `Aurea' and `Crimson Pygmy' to 2967 for `Atropurpurea', 726 for `Rose Glow', and 1135 for wild type B. thunbergii. The vigor of 1-year seedlings—as measured by dry weight of top growth—for progeny derived from `Aurea' (2.29 g) and `Crimson Pygmy' (2.74 g) was less than `Atropurpurea' (3.45 g), `Rose Glow' (3.88 g) and wild type (3.73 g). Seedlings derived from purple-leaf cultivars displayed variable ratios of green and purple leaf phenotype correlated to the proximity and identity of likely Japanese barberry pollinators. `Rose Glow' specimens located among other purple-leaf B. thunbergii produced up to 90% purple seedlings, while other samples growing in isolation or near green-leaf plants produced less than 10% purple progeny. This suggests that some invasive green-leaf Japanese barberry could be derived from cultivars. The results also show that these cultivars express disparate reproductive potential.
Jonathan M. Lehrer, Mark H. Brand, and Jessica D. Lubell
While japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC.) is an acknowledged invasive plant naturalized throughout the eastern and northern U.S., the danger posed by its popular horticultural forms is unknown and controversial. This work analyzed the reproductive potential and seedling growth of four ornamental genotypes important to the nursery industry. Fruit and seed production was quantified in 2001, 2002, and 2003 for multiple landscape plants of B.t. var. atropurpurea, `Aurea', `Crimson Pygmy', and `Rose Glow'. The average number of seeds produced per landscape specimen ranged from lows of 75 and 90 for `Aurea' and `Crimson Pygmy' to 2968 for var. atropurpurea and 762 for `Rose Glow'. Seed production relative to canopy surface area for `Rose Glow' was similar to `Aurea' and `Crimson Pygmy' and all three cultivars were less prolific than var. atropurpurea in this regard. Cleaned and stratified seeds from var. atropurpurea, `Crimson Pygmy' and `Rose Glow' showed an average greenhouse germination rate of 70% to 75%, while `Aurea' yielded 46% germination. A subpopulation of seedlings from each genotype accession was grown further outdoors in containers for a full season to ascertain seedling vigor and development. The vigor of 1-year-old seedlings, as measured by dry weight of canopy growth, for progeny derived from `Aurea' (0.70 g) and `Crimson Pygmy' (0.93 g) was significantly less than var. atropurpurea (1.20 g) and `Rose Glow' (1.33 g). These results demonstrate that popular japanese barberry cultivars express disparate reproductive potential that, after further study, may be correlated with invasive potential. Some popular commercial cultivars may pose significantly less ecological risk than others.
Mark H. Brand, Jessica D. Lubell, and Jonathan M. Lehrer
Winged euonymus [Euonymus alatus (Thunb.)] is an important landscape shrub that has demonstrated its potential to be invasive in numerous states across the central and northern United States. Nine cultivars were evaluated for their potential to produce fruits and seeds in a randomized, replicated field planting. Seeds from all cultivars were evaluated for germination rate and initial survival in a deciduous woodland. Seeds collected from ‘Compactus’ were also sown in five natural environments (full sun meadow, edge of woods, moist woods, dry woods, pine woods) to determine which habitat types support its germination and establishment. Seed production for cultivars varied from 981 to 6090 seeds per plant. The dry deciduous woods and pine woods were the only environments that supported significant germination rates that could be as high as 37.8%. Seedling survival was at least 77% in the deciduous dry woods and at least 55% in the pine woods. In the first replication, establishment rates for cultivars in the dry deciduous woods ranged from a low of 6.5% for ‘Odom’ Little Moses™ to a high of 42.5% for ‘Monstrosus’. In the second replication, all cultivars achieved over 30% establishment and most exceeded 40% establishment. An estimate of the annual seedling contribution per plant per cultivar was calculated by combining seed production data with establishment data for each cultivar. This estimate was predicted to range from 588 to 3763 and therefore none of the nine cultivars evaluated should be considered non-invasive based on our findings. Our findings show that germination and seedling survival rates are high for E. alatus and because the species is long-lived, cultivars will likely have to be completely seed-sterile to be considered non-invasive according to demographic models.
Jessica D. Lubell, Mark H. Brand, Jonathan M. Lehrer, and Kent E. Holsinger
We investigated the role of an ornamental, purple-leaved specimen of Japanese barberry in a local invasion using parentage analysis. We focused on a landscape plant of B. thunbergii var. atropurpurea in Willington, CT, that was first established at least 30 years ago. We genotyped every barberry plant found within a 92-m radius of this individual. In contrast to feral populations that are distant from residential or commercial plantings, 14% of the 43 feral plants in our sample had purple foliage and 30% were found growing within 16.5 m of the focal individual. Parentage analysis identified seven plants (five purple-leaved and two green-leaved) as descendants of the focal individual. Five of these descendants are likely first-generation offspring and two are likely second-generation seedlings. In addition, one plant was identified as a backcross between the focal plant and one of its offspring. Our results show that purple-leaved Japanese barberry used in residential landscapes can contribute to plant invasions, at least under some circumstances.